The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banister, D., D. Campbell eds.. 1985. Sea Anemones and Jellyfishes. Pp. 176-177 in The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York: Fact on File Publications.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Calder, .. "Keys to Marine Invertebrates of the Woods Hole Region" (On-line). Accessed February 6, 2000 at
  • Crothers, J.H. (ed.), (1966). Dale Fort Marine Fauna. London: Field Studies Council. External link.
  • Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Grzimek, D. 1972. Coelentrates. Pp. 209-215 in Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia Volume 1 Lower Animals. New York: Van Nostrand and Reinhold Company.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Kramp, P. L. 1961. Synopsis of the medusae of the world. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 40. 1-469
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Manning, E. March 1997. Glow Fish. BioScience, Vol 47: 135-8.
  • Marr, M. August 23, 1999. "Electronic Library (members only) 'Italy smarts from invasion of the jellyfish'" (On-line). Accessed February 2, 2000 at
  • Moyano H. 1995. Bryozoa. En: S Simonetti JA, MTK Arroyo, A Spotorno & E Lozada (eds) Diversidad Biológica de Chile. Comité Nacional de Diversidad Biológica. Comisión Nacinal de Investigación Cientñifica y Tecnológica, Santiago Chile. 364 pp.
  • Raven, .., .. Johnson. 1999. Biology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
  • Segura-Puertas, Lourdes, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, and Laura Celis. 2003. A checklist of the Medusae (Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa) of Mexico. Zootaxa, issue 194. 1-15
  • Stachowitsch, .. 1991. The Invertebrates: An Illustrated Glossary. New York: Wiley-Liss.
  • Williamson, J.A., Fenner, P.J., Burnett, J.W. & Rifkin, J.F., (1996). Venomous and poisonous marine animals: a medical and biological handbook. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. External link.


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