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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (August 2002) External link.
  • 2. Fish, J. D. and Fish, S. (1989) A student's guide to the seashore. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University press, Cambridge.
  • 2003. "Compass jellyfish: Chrysaora hysoscella" (On-line). Arkive. Accessed March 20, 2012 at
  • 2012. "Britannica Online Encylopedia" (On-line). Chrysaora. Accessed March 20, 2012 at
  • ALLARD Ginette, QUINTIN Christophe, LAMARE Véronique, in : DORIS, 27/6/2012 : Chrysaora hysoscella (Linnaeus, 1767),
  • Arai, M. 1997. A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa. Great Britain: Chapman and Hill.
  • Barz, K., H. Hirche. 2007. Abundance, distribution and prey composition of scyphomedusae in the southern North Sea. Marine Biology, 151: 1021-1033.
  • Bruce, J.R., Colman, J.S. & Jones, N.S., (1963). Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. External link.
  • Buecher, E., C. Sparks, A. Brierley, H. Boyer, M. Gibbons. 2001. Biometry and size distribution of Chrysaora hysoscella (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) and Aequorea aequorea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) off Namibia with some notes on their parasite Hyperia medusaru. Journal of Plankton Research, 23:10: 1073-1080.
  • Calder, D. 1982. Nematocysts of stages in the life cycle of Stomolophus meleagris, with keys to scyphistomae and ephyrae of some western Atlantic scyphozoa. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61: 1185-1192.
  • Chrysaora hysoscella
  • De Vito, D., S. Piraino, J. Schmich, J. Bouillon, F. Boero. 2006. Evidence of reverse development in Leptomedusae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): the case of Laodicea undulata (Forbes and Goodsir 1851). Marine Biology, 149:2: 339-346,.
  • Den Hartog, J., M. Van Nierop. 1984. A study on the guy contents of six leathery turtles Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus)(Reptilia: Testudines: Dermochelyidae) from British waters and from the Netherlands. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 209: 4-36.
  • Dittrich, B. 1988. Studies on the life cycle and reproduction of the parasitic amphipod Hyperia galba in the North Sea Birgit Dittrich. Helgoland Marine Research, 42/1: 79-98.
  • Doyle, T., J. Houghton, S. Buckley, G. Hays, J. Davenport. 2007. The broad-scale distribution of five jellyfish species across a temperate coastal environment. Hydrobiologia, 579: 29–39.
  • Fish, J., S. Fish. 1989. A Student's Guide to the Seashore, 2nd Edition. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. Accessed March 20, 2012 at,+J.+D.+and+Fish,+S.+(1989)+A+student%27s+guide+to+the+seashore.+2nd+Edition.+Cambridge+University+press,+Cambridge.#v=onepage&q=Cnidaria&f=false.
  • Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Gibson, R., Hextall, B. & Rogers, A., (2001). Photographic guide to the sea and seashore life of Britain and north-west Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Hays, G., T. Doyle, J. Houghton, M. Lilley, J. Metcalf, D. Righton. 2008. Diving behaviour of jellyfish equipped with electronic tags. Journal of Planktonic Research, 30:3: 325-331.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Holst, S., G. Jarms. 2007. Substrate choice and settlement preferences of planula larvae of five scyphozoa (Cnidaria) from German Bight, North Sea. Marine Biology, 151:3: 863-871. Accessed March 20, 2012 at
  • Holst, S., G. Jarms. 2010. Efffects of low salinity on settlement and strobilation of Schyphozoa (Cnidaria): Is the lion’s mane Cyanea capillata (L.) able to reproduce in the brackish Baltic Sea?. Hydrobiologia, 645: 53-68.
  • Houghton, J., T. Doyle, J. Davenport, G. Hays. 2006. The ocean sunfish Mola mola: insights into distribution, abundance and behaviour in the Irish and Celtic Seas. Marine Biology Association, 86: 1237-1243.
  • Houghton, J., T. Doyle, J. Davenport, M. Lilley, R. Wilson, G. Hays. 2007. Stranding events provide indirect insights into the seasonality and persistence of jellyfish medusae (Cnidaria:Scyphozoa). Hydrobiologia, 589: 1–13.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • IUCN, 2012. "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1." (On-line). Accessed October 02, 2012 at
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Leloup, E. (1952). Coelentérés [Coelenterata]. ---. Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: Brussels, Belgium. 283 pp.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 12th ed. v. 1 (pt 2): 533-1327
  • Lynam, C., M. Gibbons, B. Axelsen, C. Sparks, J. Coetzee, B. Heywood, A. Brierley. 2006. Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Current Biology, 13/13: 492-493.
  • MarLIN (Marine Life Information Network), (2005). SEArchable BEnthic Data (SEABED) Map [on-line]. Data Access Sub-programme, Marine Life Information Network for Britian and Ireland, External link.
  • Mariottini, G., L. Pane. 2010. Mediterranean jellyfish venoms: a review on scyphomedusae. Marine Drugs, 8: 1122-1152. Accessed March 20, 2012 at
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • Purcell, J., S. Uye, W. Lo. 2007. Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 350: 153-174.
  • Russell, F.S., (1970). The medusae of the British Isles. Vol II - Pelagic Scyphozoa, with a supplement to the first volume on hydromedusae. Cambridge University Press External link.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Vera Vukanic
  • WoRMS (2015). Chrysaora hysoscella (Linnaeus, 1767). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Wrobel, D. 2004. "Scyphomedusae" (On-line). The Jellies Zone. Accessed October 05, 2012 at


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