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Overview

Brief Summary

The compass jellyfish is easy to recognize by the brown v-shaped markings found running from the center of the jellyfish down to the outer edge. This jellyfish has long stinging tentacles hanging from the rim. The catching arms around the mouth opening resemble a bridal veil and can grow much longer than the tentacles. A compass jellyfish begins life as a male but eventually turns female in the course of its one year of life.
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Biology

Jellyfish are propelled through the water by means of pulsations of the bell. They often become washed ashore by wind and storms, where they die. This jellyfish catches its food with its tentacles, which can be extended and retracted. A range of planktonic animals are caught in this way before being transferred to the central arms around the mouth. Adults are hermaphrodites, and function initially as males before becoming functional females. Sperm is released from the mouth of a functional male, and drawn into a female, also through the mouth (the mouth being the only external opening). Fertilisation then takes place inside the female. Free-swimming larvae (planulae) are released from the female during summer or autumn. They remain in the plankton for just a few days before settling as a polyp known as a scyphistoma. During the following spring, the scyphistoma produces tiny jellyfish (ephyrae) by a form of asexual reproduction. These tiny jellyfish detach, and quickly develop into mature jellyfish by summer. The compass jellyfish lives for around one year (2).
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Description

The compass jellyfish has a saucer-shaped bell, with 32 semi-circular lobes around the fringe, each one with a brown spot (2). On the upper surface of the bell, 16 brown V-shaped marks radiate outwards from a dark central spot. The mouth, the only opening to the exterior, is located on the centre of the underside of the bell, and is surrounded by 4 arms. There are also 24 tentacles around the edge of the bell, grouped in threes. The colour of this jellyfish varies, with a variable level of brown pigment (2).
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 Chrysaora hysoscella has a thickened bell (manubrium) that can grow up to 30 cm in diameter. The edges of the bell are developed into 32 lobes and bear 24 marginal tentacles. These are arranged in eight groups of three which alternate with eight sensory organs and are capable of great elongation. The marginal tentacles are conical in shape with a flattened thicker base giving the jellyfish a fluted appearance. They are also covered with clusters of stinging cells (nematocysts). It has a long and slender manubrium which leads onto 4 oral arms that are fused for a short distance at its base. Typically Chrysaora hysoscella is yellowish white in colour with a highly distinctive brown pattern like the radii of a compass.May be confused with the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita when stranded. Aurelia aurita however, has shorter tentacles with no brown v-shaped markings on the bell. Instead it has 4 purplish-blue horseshoe shaped gonads that are easily distinguished through the upper surface of the bell. The stinging cells and venom of Chrysaora hysoscella are strong and can produce painful, long lasting weals in humans.
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Description

The compass jellyfish has a series of V-shaped brown marks in a radial pattern on the disk.
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Distribution

Compass jellyfish are found in coastal areas of the northeast Atlantic Ocean, particularly in the Celtic, Irish, and North Seas (greatest abundance between 50.0°–52.0° N). They are also found in the Mediterranean Sea and coastal regions of South Africa.

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native ); ethiopian (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native )

  • Doyle, T., J. Houghton, S. Buckley, G. Hays, J. Davenport. 2007. The broad-scale distribution of five jellyfish species across a temperate coastal environment. Hydrobiologia, 579: 29–39.
  • Hays, G., T. Doyle, J. Houghton, M. Lilley, J. Metcalf, D. Righton. 2008. Diving behaviour of jellyfish equipped with electronic tags. Journal of Planktonic Research, 30:3: 325-331.
  • Mariottini, G., L. Pane. 2010. Mediterranean jellyfish venoms: a review on scyphomedusae. Marine Drugs, 8: 1122-1152. Accessed March 20, 2012 at www.mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs.
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Cosmopolitan species.
  • Leloup, E. (1952). Coelentérés [Coelenterata]. ---. Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: Brussels, Belgium. 283 pp.
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Range

Although it has been recorded from around all of the coasts of Britain, it is more frequently found in the south and west (2).
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Physical Description

Morphology

As adults, compass jellyfish have a typical medusa body plan and display radial symmetry around the oral-aboral axis. The size of the flattened, saucer-shaped bell, which plays an important role in swimming, ranges from 3 cm to 43 cm with a median diameter of 15.31 cm, and can weigh anywhere from 0.2-2.4 kg. The aboral surface of the bell can be various shades of brown and has V-shaped markings around a central spot. These jellyfish have extendable and retractable tentacles that are arranged in eight groups of three (a total of 24 tentacles). The tentacles have stinging cells to capture prey, and a sense organ, which can detect light and olfactory stimuli, is located between each group of tentacles. Additionally, there are four arms, longer than the diameter of the organism, that surround the mouth. This species changes from male to female over the course of its lifespan, meaning that the female stage is larger than the male stage, on average.

Range mass: 0.2 to 2.4 kg.

Range length: 3 to 43 (diameter) cm.

Average length: 15.31 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; radial symmetry ; venomous

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger

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Diagnostic Description

Morphology

Umbrella flat smooth and thick, 15-49cm in diametar, the color is variable, but is characterized by 16 v-shaped gold-brown or yellow-brown marks on the upper umbrella, radiating from the central region, there are 24 marginal tentacles, which are easly broken off, and thirty-two pigmented semi-circular marginal lappets.
  • Vera Vukanic
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Ecology

Habitat

Compass jellyfish are marine organisms that live in cold or temperate waters (between 4°C and 28°C) relatively near the coast in continental shelf regions. Adults can usually be observed near the surface of the water, but when currents near the surface become too rough, they are known to dive deeper in the water column (down to 26.9 m) and can be found just half a meter from the seabed. Overall, it is uncommon for this species to be found below 30m.

Range depth: 30 to 2 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: pelagic ; coastal

  • Buecher, E., C. Sparks, A. Brierley, H. Boyer, M. Gibbons. 2001. Biometry and size distribution of Chrysaora hysoscella (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) and Aequorea aequorea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) off Namibia with some notes on their parasite Hyperia medusaru. Journal of Plankton Research, 23:10: 1073-1080.
  • Fish, J., S. Fish. 1989. A Student's Guide to the Seashore, 2nd Edition. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. Accessed March 20, 2012 at http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1wD21-DC81YC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Fish,+J.+D.+and+Fish,+S.+(1989)+A+student%27s+guide+to+the+seashore.+2nd+Edition.+Cambridge+University+press,+Cambridge.#v=onepage&q=Cnidaria&f=false.
  • Houghton, J., T. Doyle, J. Davenport, M. Lilley, R. Wilson, G. Hays. 2007. Stranding events provide indirect insights into the seasonality and persistence of jellyfish medusae (Cnidaria:Scyphozoa). Hydrobiologia, 589: 1–13.
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coastal
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 18 - 39

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 18 - 39
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Chrysaora hysoscella is a pelagic species. Young Chrysaora appear in British waters in May.
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Inhabits inshore waters (2).
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Trophic Strategy

This species feeds on other marine invertebrates, such as phyllopods (Penilia avirostris), copepods (Acartia and Centropages sp.), and decapod larvae. They are also known to feed on plankton. Compass jellyfish use their four oral tentacles to move food towards the mouth. The tentacles bear nematocysts or stinging cells that subdue the prey, aiding in their capture and preventing damage to the jellyfishes' delicate tentacles.

Animal Foods: aquatic crustaceans; other marine invertebrates; zooplankton

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats non-insect arthropods); planktivore

  • 2012. "Britannica Online Encylopedia" (On-line). Chrysaora. Accessed March 20, 2012 at http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/116367/Chrysaora.
  • Barz, K., H. Hirche. 2007. Abundance, distribution and prey composition of scyphomedusae in the southern North Sea. Marine Biology, 151: 1021-1033.
  • Den Hartog, J., M. Van Nierop. 1984. A study on the guy contents of six leathery turtles Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus)(Reptilia: Testudines: Dermochelyidae) from British waters and from the Netherlands. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 209: 4-36.
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Associations

This species is a potentially important prey item to the predators indicated above, as well as serving as a predator of many different types of marine crustaceans. These prey items are also fed on by many species of fish, resulting in competition between jellyfish and these other predatory species. Additionally, compass jellyfish play host to at least two species of parasitic amphipods, which feed on the jellyfishes' gonads.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Dittrich, B. 1988. Studies on the life cycle and reproduction of the parasitic amphipod Hyperia galba in the North Sea Birgit Dittrich. Helgoland Marine Research, 42/1: 79-98.
  • Purcell, J., S. Uye, W. Lo. 2007. Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 350: 153-174.
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Compass jellyfish can be consumed by predators such as leatherback sea turtles and ocean sunfish. Studies have shown that individuals allow themselves to drift into deeper waters when they feel threatened by potential predators, or to avoid rough waves.

Known Predators:

  • Houghton, J., T. Doyle, J. Davenport, G. Hays. 2006. The ocean sunfish Mola mola: insights into distribution, abundance and behaviour in the Irish and Celtic Seas. Marine Biology Association, 86: 1237-1243.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Compass jellyfish are able to perceive their orientation and maintain positional equilibrium via sensory cells called statocysts that are found within larger sensory structures called rhopalia. The rhopalia also contain pigmented spots that help the jellyfish to perceive changes in light, as well as sensory pits that can detect chemical cues in the water. It is likely that chemicals are the main means by which these jellyfish would communicate, but as they are largely solitary animals, their communication has yet to be thoroughly studied.

Communication Channels: chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; chemical

  • Arai, M. 1997. A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa. Great Britain: Chapman and Hill.
  • Wrobel, D. 2004. "Scyphomedusae" (On-line). The Jellies Zone. Accessed October 05, 2012 at http://jellieszone.com/scyphomedusae.htm.
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Life Cycle

Compass jellyfish are scyphozoans and exhibit a life cycle characteristic to other organisms in this class. Planulae are released from the female and swim freely for a few days before settling on a substrate (preferably abiotic) and becoming a benthic polyp (scyphistoma). The scyphistoma reproduces asexually (strobilation) by releasing multiple ephyrae (an immature medusa stage) typically between the spring and autumn. Research has shown that there is equal representation of different levels of maturity among the medusa stage at any given time, indicating that many ephyrae are released over a period of time, as opposed to many at once. The maturation of the ephyra stage to the adult form can take a week to months and typically occurs between the spring and summer. There is evidence to suggest that the early ephyra stage can experience reverse development and transform back into a polyp, rather than maturing into an adult. However, once in the adult stage, reverse development is not possible and an individual is likely to undergo sexual reproduction. Because this species is a protandrous hermaphrodite, upon maturity, an individual will initially function as a male, later transitioning to the production of female gametes.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

  • 2003. "Compass jellyfish: Chrysaora hysoscella" (On-line). Arkive. Accessed March 20, 2012 at http://www.arkive.org/compass-jellyfish/chrysaora-hysoscella/#text=Biology.
  • Calder, D. 1982. Nematocysts of stages in the life cycle of Stomolophus meleagris, with keys to scyphistomae and ephyrae of some western Atlantic scyphozoa. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61: 1185-1192.
  • De Vito, D., S. Piraino, J. Schmich, J. Bouillon, F. Boero. 2006. Evidence of reverse development in Leptomedusae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): the case of Laodicea undulata (Forbes and Goodsir 1851). Marine Biology, 149:2: 339-346,.
  • Holst, S., G. Jarms. 2010. Efffects of low salinity on settlement and strobilation of Schyphozoa (Cnidaria): Is the lion’s mane Cyanea capillata (L.) able to reproduce in the brackish Baltic Sea?. Hydrobiologia, 645: 53-68.
  • Holst, S., G. Jarms. 2007. Substrate choice and settlement preferences of planula larvae of five scyphozoa (Cnidaria) from German Bight, North Sea. Marine Biology, 151:3: 863-871. Accessed March 20, 2012 at http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=1e759745-80fb-4668-93ec-ffdce5d8438d%40sessionmgr4&vid=1&hid=18&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=24940942.
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Life Expectancy

The lifespan of compass jellyfish is about one year. Between the months of June and August, it is estimated that 95% of the total medusae experience a brief stranding period, where they wash up on the shore and die. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown, but based on current research, it has been hypothesized that mature medusae die after gamete release, which then causes them to strand. Evidence to support this hypothesis comes from previous studies performed on related species, and observations that recently stranded mature compass jellyfish are without oral arms or peripheral tentacles, which suggests that they died before washing ashore. It has also been found that some small, sexually immature medusae may strand due to the inability to withstand strong currents.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
1 years.

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Reproduction

Specific information regarding the mating systems of this species is currently unavailable, including how mates are found or triggers for gamete relaease. As broadcast spawners, males and females potentially have many mates.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

This species can reproduce sexually or asexually. Release of ephyrae by strobilating scyphostoma is a form of asexual reproduction, whereas mature medusae are capable of sexual reproduction. The time for an ephyra to mature into a sexually mature adult (male) is up to a few months (typically between spring and summer in northern regions). There is variation in the sizes of the medusae (representing different stages of maturity) present in the population at a given time, but research has shown that there are more large individuals during seasons in which sexual reproduction occurs. These seasons vary with location; for example, in the North Sea, large medusae are numerous in the summer and autumn, whereas they are numerous in the winter near South Africa. Temperature and food supply could play a role in causing this difference, although further research is needed to assess these claims.

Sperm are released from the mouth of a functional male and taken in by the mouth of a female; fertilization is internal. After fertilization, free-swimming planula larvae are released by the female and settle as polyps a few days later. From the polyp form, research has shown that this species does not exhibit a single, synchronized reproductive cohort, instead releasing ephyrae over a several month period.

Breeding interval: This species experiences a single sexual breeding season yearly, but can also reproduce asexually until reaching adulthood.

Breeding season: Generally over the course of a season (3-4 months), either winter or summer depending on the location of the species.

Key Reproductive Features: semelparous ; iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sequential hermaphrodite (Protandrous ); sexual ; asexual ; fertilization (Internal ); broadcast (group) spawning

Males have no parental investment in their offspring. Females offer some protection to their developing young by sheltering them inside their bells until the free-swimming planula stage is ready to be released.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female)

  • Buecher, E., C. Sparks, A. Brierley, H. Boyer, M. Gibbons. 2001. Biometry and size distribution of Chrysaora hysoscella (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) and Aequorea aequorea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) off Namibia with some notes on their parasite Hyperia medusaru. Journal of Plankton Research, 23:10: 1073-1080.
  • Fish, J., S. Fish. 1989. A Student's Guide to the Seashore, 2nd Edition. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. Accessed March 20, 2012 at http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1wD21-DC81YC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Fish,+J.+D.+and+Fish,+S.+(1989)+A+student%27s+guide+to+the+seashore.+2nd+Edition.+Cambridge+University+press,+Cambridge.#v=onepage&q=Cnidaria&f=false.
  • Houghton, J., T. Doyle, J. Davenport, M. Lilley, R. Wilson, G. Hays. 2007. Stranding events provide indirect insights into the seasonality and persistence of jellyfish medusae (Cnidaria:Scyphozoa). Hydrobiologia, 589: 1–13.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

This species does not currently have any special conservation status.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

  • IUCN, 2012. "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1." (On-line). Accessed October 02, 2012 at http://www.iucnredlist.org.
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Status

Common and widespread (2).
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Threats

This species is not currently threatened.
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Management

Conservation

Conservation action has not been targeted at this common and widespread species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Climate change and competition for prey between fish species and compass jellyfish has resulted in a large increase in the jellyfish population, while causing a decline in the number of fish within the last twenty years. The dominance switch from fish to jellyfish has a negative impact on the fishing industry. Jellyfish can also spoil fish catches by bursting trawl nets. Furthermore, this species has been known to interfere with power generation by obstructing intakes, hinder diamond mining by blocking sediment suction, and sting humans on occasion, causing wounds that, while painful, are rarely severe.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings, venomous )

  • Lynam, C., M. Gibbons, B. Axelsen, C. Sparks, J. Coetzee, B. Heywood, A. Brierley. 2006. Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Current Biology, 13/13: 492-493.
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There are currently no known positive economic effects of compass jellyfish on humans.

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Wikipedia

Chrysaora hysoscella

Chrysaora hysoscella, also known as the compass jellyfish, is a very common species of jellyfish that lives in coastal waters near the United Kingdom and Turkey. It has a diameter of up to 30 cm. Its 24 tentacles are arranged in eight groups of three. It is usually colored yellowish white, with some brown.[1]

References

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