The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Clark, S. F. 1875. Descriptions of new and rare species of hydroids from the New England coast. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences 3: 58-66, pls 9-10.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Schuchert, P. (2013). WoRMS Hydrozoa: World Hydrozoa database (version 2013-03-04). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Syntype:
  • Syntype: Clark, S. F. 1875. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci. 3: 58, pl. 9, fig. 2.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Watson, J. E. (2005). Hydroids of the Archipelago of the Recherche and Esperance, Western Australia: annotated list, redescriptions of species and descriptions of new species. (WellsF E., WalkerD I., KendrickG A., Ed.).The Marine Flora and Fauna of Esperance, Western Australia. 495-611. Perth: Western Australian Museum.


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