Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Size: small to large. Plumage: white and various shades of grey or black; most with deeply forked tails. Other characters: tarsus short; bill equal to or longer than head, red and/or yellow; legs red or yellow. <389>
  • Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 14927 specimens in 32 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7967 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): -1.621 - 29.128
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.037 - 30.285
  Salinity (PPS): 6.428 - 37.870
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.463 - 9.061
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.052 - 2.073
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.609 - 79.917

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): -1.621 - 29.128

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.037 - 30.285

Salinity (PPS): 6.428 - 37.870

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.463 - 9.061

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.052 - 2.073

Silicate (umol/l): 0.609 - 79.917
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Known predators

Sterna (Megaceryle, Sterna) is prey of:
Laridae
Homo sapiens

Based on studies in:
USA: California (Estuarine, Intertidal, Littoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • G. E. MacGinitie, Ecological aspects of a California marine estuary, Am. Midland Nat. 16(5):629-765, from p. 652 (1935).
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© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

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Known prey organisms

Sterna (Megaceryle, Sterna) preys on:
Atherinidae
Istiophoridae
Clevelandia
Fundulus
Myoxocephalus

Based on studies in:
USA: New York, Long Island (Marine)
USA: California (Estuarine, Intertidal, Littoral)
USA: Massachusetts, Cape Ann (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • G. M. Woodwell, Toxic substances and ecological cycles, Sci. Am. 216(3):24-31, from pp. 26-27 (March 1967).
  • G. E. MacGinitie, Ecological aspects of a California marine estuary, Am. Midland Nat. 16(5):629-765, from p. 652 (1935).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 272 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 284 (1947).
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Source: SPIRE

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:108Public Records:48
Specimens with Sequences:66Public Species:10
Specimens with Barcodes:66Public BINs:10
Species:11         
Species With Barcodes:11         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Sterna

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Sterna

For other uses, see Sterna (disambiguation).

Sterna is a genus of terns in the bird family Sternidae. It used to encompass most "white" terns indiscriminately, but mtDNA sequence comparisons have recently determined that this arrangement is paraphyletic (Bridge et al., 2005). It is now restricted to the typical large white terns occurring near-globally in coastal regions.

Classification[edit]

References[edit]

  • Bridge, E. S.; Jones, A. W. & Baker, A. J. (2005): A phylogenetic framework for the terns (Sternini) inferred from mtDNA sequences: implications for taxonomy and plumage evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 459–469. PDF fulltext.
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