Overview

Brief Summary

2001).
  • CORNELIUS P.F.S. (1975) Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 28: 373-426.

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Comprehensive Description

On fixed objects, also epizoic. Although a well-distributed species few details of its biology are available.
  • CORNELIUS P.F.S. (1975) Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 28: 373-426.

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Description

The main stem of the colony is erect and composed of several fibres. The hydrothecae arise irregularly from all sides of the stem and branches. They are long and tubular in shape, tapering towards their base. They are attached to the main stem by a short pedicel. The rim of the hydrotheca lacks any opercular flaps. Gonothecae are rarely produced. Erect colonies to 100mm. It is debatable whether the other forms of Lafoea which consist of creeping stolons on other hydroids are distinct species.
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© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Detailed Description

Hydrorhiza reptant on host hydroids, stolons crumpled, colony predominantly stolonal but sometimes a short length of stolon becoming free as an erect monosiphonic stem.

Hydrothecae given off irregularly in all directions from hydrorhiza; hydrothecae long, elongate conical, radially symmetrical, straight to faintly sinuous, no true pedicel but a tubular narrowing of hydrotheca. A faint transverse to slightly oblique ring of scattered punctae sometimes present marking distal junction of pseudopedicel with hydrotheca, sometimes a faint constriction in perisarc of hydrotheca at desmocyte ring. Margin transverse to hydrothecal axis, circular, rim weakly everted with up to seven, usually widely spaced, regenerations. Perisarc of hydrotheca moderately thick near base, thinning distally to margin.

Hydranths not well preserved, deeply contracted into hydrothecae, but probably with eight to 10 tentacles.

Coppinia comprising a tightly packed circle of gonothecae seated on a thin, dish-shaped basal plate adherent to stem of hydroid host; protective nematophore tubules scattered in irregular groups around and throughout coppinia.

Gonothecae small, crowded, flask-shaped, bases rounded, widening from base to shoulder, surmounted by a short tubular neck with transverse, slightly everted circular orifice; perisarc of gonothecae rather thin. Ovoid gonophores (or planulae) present in some gonothecae but too degenerate for description. Protective tubules varying in length from short to very long, tubular in section, single or bifid, some completely or partially conjoined proximally, straight or curved, narrowing from base to apex; terminal orifice circular; perisarc thick, usually smooth; some undulated; others showing scars from interruptions to growth.

Colour: Colonies and coppiniae transparent colourless; gonophores pale creamy white.

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© Watson, Jeanette

Source: Cnidaria Lifedesk

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Distribution

Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Rainbow. Shallow to deep waters of all oceans [concept of species as defined by CORNELIUS (1975)].
  • CORNELIUS P.F.S. (1975) Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 28: 373-426.

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Widespread around the British Isles except in the southern North Sea and eastern English Channel.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Near cosmopolitan- Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic and Antarctic.

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© Watson, Jeanette

Source: Cnidaria Lifedesk

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Physical Description

Morphology

Stolonal or erect colonies, often a combination of both; erect colonies very irregularly branched, often with anastomoses, mono- or polysiphonic, the latter being composed of several adnate parallel tubes all bearing hydrothecae on all sides, occasionally in more or less opposite and decussate arrangement. Hydrotheca tubular to elongated conical, frequently asymmetrical, rim circular, usually renovated. Hydrotheca narrowing basally into frequently almost imperceptible pedicel; other colonies may have a well developed, twisted hydrothecal pedicel. Hydranth extensile, with about 20 amphicoronate tentacles around conical proboscis, attached deep inside hydrothecae by means of ring of desmocytes; coenosarc yellowish. Gonothecae aggregated into ovoid, several mm long coppinia on stem or branches, hermaphroditic, with many strongly curved accessory tubes protruding from between gonothecae. Gonothecae amphora-shaped, strongly adnate. Presence of acrocyst unknown. Coppiniae rare, reproduction apparently frequently vegetative. Nematocysts: Isorhiza?s of two size classes (about 21 and 16 ?m length, not in same colony!) and a smaller unidentified capsule, 6 ?m long (SCHUCHERT
  • CORNELIUS P.F.S. (1975) Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 28: 373-426.

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Size

Erect colony up to 100 mm high; length of hydrotheca varied between 150 and 800 ?m, diameter at rim 100-200 ?m; greatest dimensions in specimens from cold water.
  • CORNELIUS P.F.S. (1975) Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 28: 373-426.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 16 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7 - 70
  Temperature range (°C): -0.262 - 2.411
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.800 - 2.191
  Salinity (PPS): 27.473 - 28.357
  Oxygen (ml/l): 7.326 - 7.573
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.106 - 0.113
  Silicate (umol/l): 7.173 - 8.544

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7 - 70

Temperature range (°C): -0.262 - 2.411

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.800 - 2.191

Salinity (PPS): 27.473 - 28.357

Oxygen (ml/l): 7.326 - 7.573

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.106 - 0.113

Silicate (umol/l): 7.173 - 8.544
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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The erect form is normally found on vertical surfaces or beneath overhangs, attached to bedrock or boulders.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Subtidal, epizoic on hydroids and gorgonians.

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© Watson, Jeanette

Source: Cnidaria Lifedesk

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