Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

colonial
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Remarks

Can deliver a painful sting.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Watson, Jeanette

Source: Cnidaria Lifedesk

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Detailed Description

Hydrorhiza reptant on substrate. Colonies variable in size from single stems a few centimetres long to large complex colonies of several stems to 200 mm high.

Stems erect, plumose, simple or branched, if branched, up to 4 mm wide at base, fascicled, polysiphonic tubes running parallel to near apex of branches. Two or three orders of branching may be present, branches straight, given off sparsely and irregularly from stem, branch internodes indistinct.

Hydrocladia frontal on branch, alternate, one on internode; hydrocladial internodes short, deep, nodes slightly oblique; two partial intranodal septa, one passing down from base of hydrotheca, the other from base of lateral nematotheca.

Hydrotheca saccate, adcauline wall flat or slightly convex in contact with internode, where free of internode attached to lateral nematotheca, a deep indentation in base at proximal end of adcauline wall, abcauline sinuate, rising abruptly behind margin, a deep V -shaped septum penetrating hydrotheca between mesial nematotheca and margin. Margin circular with a pair of opposite, low lobes.

Mesial nematotheca erect, tubular, parallel with hydrothecal abcauline wall, reaching to or beyond hydrothecal margin, tapering a little distally, terminal orifice circular, a little excavated on adcauline side, a secondary orifice above junction with hydrotheca and another, internal, connecting with hydrotheca. Lateral nematotheca long, tubular, inclined forward, overtopping hydrothecal margin, orifice circular or slightly excavated. A cauline nematotheca on branch at base of hydrocladium, short, body inflated, a circular orifice on a short neck.

Phylactocarp a modified hydrocladium given off from front of branch, phylactocarp about same length as gonotheca; proximal internode with a hydrotheca, next internode short, athecate, succeeding internode with two nematothecae and pedicel of gonotheca, following three to six internodes short with two long, digitate nematothecae with circular distal orifice.

Gonothecae large, lenticular, containing a degenerate medusa, one or two gonothecae, sometimes a male and a female, on same rachis, perisarc thin, female containing many small ova. At release, medusa ovoid, without mouth or canals but with a ring of strongly refringent granules around margin.

Colour: In life, stems and branches dark brown to black, hydrocladia pale grey, male gonophore purple to black, female cream to pale orange. The refringent granules on the released medusa sparkle blue and white when viewed under a microscope.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Watson, Jeanette

Source: Cnidaria Lifedesk

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

circum-(sub)tropical
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Circumglobal subtropical/tropical: Mediterranean sea, North Atlantic, Red Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Mozambique, Australia.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Watson, Jeanette

Source: Cnidaria Lifedesk

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Distinctive, black-stemmed, branching colony, up to about 17 cm. Habitat: shallow reefs. Distribution: pantropical and temperate (Richmond, 1997).
  • Richmond, M. (Ed.) (1997). A guide to the seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC: Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-4594-X. 448 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 16 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 10 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 33
  Temperature range (°C): 23.044 - 24.646
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.041 - 0.160
  Salinity (PPS): 35.145 - 35.555
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.754 - 4.952
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.169
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.376 - 2.555

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 33

Temperature range (°C): 23.044 - 24.646

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.041 - 0.160

Salinity (PPS): 35.145 - 35.555

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.754 - 4.952

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.169

Silicate (umol/l): 1.376 - 2.555
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 16 - 90
  Temperature range (°C): 23.426 - 28.366
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.889 - 8.455
  Salinity (PPS): 34.072 - 34.404
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.400 - 4.541
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.044 - 0.671
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.716 - 4.293

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 16 - 90

Temperature range (°C): 23.426 - 28.366

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.889 - 8.455

Salinity (PPS): 34.072 - 34.404

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.400 - 4.541

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.044 - 0.671

Silicate (umol/l): 1.716 - 4.293
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Subtidal, on rock and coral rubble.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Watson, Jeanette

Source: Cnidaria Lifedesk

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Risk Statement

Can deliver a painful sting.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Watson, Jeanette

Source: Cnidaria Lifedesk

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!