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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

zooxanthellate
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Comprehensive Description

Biology: Skeleton

More info
AuthorSkeleton?Mineral or Organic?MineralPercent Magnesium
Boshoff, 1981 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Verrill, 1905 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Veron, 2000 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Cairns, Hoeksema, and van der Land, 1999 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
den Hartog, 1980 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
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© Hexacorallians of the World

Source: Hexacorallians of the World

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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in the Caribbean, the southern Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. It is also known from the eastern Atlantic.
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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in shallow reef environments, hard-bottom communities, tidal flats, seagrass beds and rubble fields, to 3 m depth. (Aronson, R., Precht, W., Moore, J., Weil, E., and Bruckner, A. pers. comm.)

Systems
  • Marine
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Source: IUCN

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Depth range based on 980 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 866 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -0.5 - 99.875
  Temperature range (°C): 19.819 - 28.067
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 8.028
  Salinity (PPS): 35.179 - 36.533
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.986 - 4.746
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.020 - 0.379
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.866 - 4.727

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -0.5 - 99.875

Temperature range (°C): 19.819 - 28.067

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 8.028

Salinity (PPS): 35.179 - 36.533

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.986 - 4.746

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.020 - 0.379

Silicate (umol/l): 0.866 - 4.727
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Siderastrea radians

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACAGCCTTC---AGTATGTTAATACGATTAGAGCTCTCGGCTCCGGGGGCTATGTTAGGAGAC---GATCATCTTTATAATGTAATTGTTACGGCACACGCTTTTGTTATGATTTTTTTTTTGGTTATGCCAGTGATGATAGGGGGGTTTGGAAATTGGTTGGTTCCATTA---TATATTGGTGCACCTGATATGGCTTTTCCGCGGCTTAATAATATTAGTTTTTGGTTGTTGCCTCCTGCTTTAGTATTATTATTAGGTTCCGCTTTTGTTGAACAAGGAGCTGGTACCGGATGAACGGTTTATCCTCCTCTATCGAGCATCCAAGTTCACTCTGGGGGGGCGGTGGACATG---GCTATTTTTAGCCTCCATTTAGCTGGGGCGTCTTCGATTTTGGGCGCAATGAATTTTATAACAACTATATTAAATATGCGGGCTCCCGGGATGACATTGAACAAAATGCCATTATTTGTGTGGTCTATCTTGATTACTGCTTTTTTATTATTATTATCTTTGCCAGTATTAGCGGGG---GCTATAACCATGCTTTTAACGGATAGAAATTTTAATACGACTTTTTTTGATCCCGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCGATTTTATTTCAG------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Siderastrea radians

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Australian Museum, Sydney
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© Ocean Genome Legacy

Source: Ocean Genome Resource

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Aronson, R., Bruckner, A., Moore, J., Precht, B. & E. Weil

Reviewer/s
Livingstone, S., Polidoro, B. & Smith, J. (Global Marine Species Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
The most important known threat for this species is extensive reduction of coral reef habitat due to a combination of threats. Specific population trends are unknown but population reduction can be inferred from estimated habitat loss (Wilkinson 2004). This species is widespread and very common throughout its range, can live off-reef, and is tolerant of sedimentation, and therefore is likely to be more resilient to habitat loss and reef degradation because of an assumed large effective population size that is highly connected and/or stable with enhanced genetic variability. Therefore, the estimated habitat loss of 10% from reefs already destroyed within its range is the best inference of population reduction since it may survive in coral reefs already at the critical stage of degradation (Wilkinson 2004). This inference of population reduction over three generation lengths (30 years) does not meet the threshold of a threat category and this species is Least Concern. However, because of predicted threats from climate change and ocean acidification it will be important to reassess this species in 10 years or sooner, particularly if the species is also observed to disappear from reefs currently at the critical stage of reef degradation.
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Population

Population
This species is very common in shallow-water reef and hard-bottom habitats. Some localized declines have been reported, but no major range-wide declines have been observed (Aronson, R., Precht, W., Moore, J., Weil, E., and Bruckner, A. pers. comm.).

There is no species specific population information available for this species. However, there is evidence that overall coral reef habitat has declined, and this is used as a proxy for population decline for this species. This species is more resilient to some of the threats faced by corals and therefore population decline is estimated using the percentage of destroyed reefs only (Wilkinson 2004). We assume that most, if not all, mature individuals will be removed from a destroyed reef and that on average, the number of individuals on reefs are equal across its range and proportional to the percentage of destroyed reefs. Reef losses throughout the species' range have been estimated over three generations, two in the past and one projected into the future.

The age of first maturity of most reef building corals is typically three to eight years (Wallace 1999) and therefore we assume that average age of mature individuals is greater than eight years. Furthermore, based on average sizes and growth rates, we assume that average generation length is 10 years, unless otherwise stated. Total longevity is not known, but likely to be more than ten years. Therefore any population decline rates for the Red List assessment are measured over at least 30 years. Follow the link below for further details on population decline and generation length estimates.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is fairly tolerant to sedimentation. However, localized declines may be taking place due to pollution (oil spills) and habitat loss and fragmentation, particularly where there are ongoing coastal development projects, due to their occurrence in shallow waters. A potential future threat is sea-level rise, especially in areas where hard-bottom communities are replaced by soft substrates (Aronson, R., Precht, W., Moore, J., Weil, E., and Bruckner, A. pers. comm.).

In general, the major threat to corals is global climate change, in particular, temperature extremes leading to bleaching and increased susceptibility to disease, increased severity of ENSO events and storms, and ocean acidification. In addition to global climate change, corals are also threatened by disease and a number of localized threats. The severity of these combined threats to the global population of each individual species is not known.

Coral disease has emerged as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide and is a major cause of reef deterioration (Weil et al. 2006). The numbers of diseases and coral species affected, as well as the distribution of diseases have all increased dramatically within the last decade (Porter et al. 2001, Green and Bruckner 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004, Weil 2004). Coral disease epizootics have resulted in significant losses of coral cover and were implicated in the dramatic decline of acroporids in the Florida Keys (Aronson and Precht 2001, Porter et al. 2001, Patterson et al. 2002). In the Indo-Pacific, disease is also on the rise with disease outbreaks recently reported from the Great Barrier Reef (Willis et al. 2004), Marshall Islands (Jacobson 2006) and the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006). Increased coral disease levels on the Great Barrier Reef were correlated with increased ocean temperatures (Willis et al. 2007) supporting the prediction that disease levels will be increasing with higher sea surface temperatures. Escalating anthropogenic stressors combined with the threats associated with global climate change of increases in coral disease, frequency and duration of coral bleaching and ocean acidification place coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific at high risk of collapse.

Localized threats to corals include fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
All corals are listed on CITES Appendix II. In US waters, it is illegal to harvest corals for commercial purposes. (Aronson, R., Precht, W., Moore, J., Weil, E., and Bruckner, A. pers. comm.)

Parts of this species distribution fall within several Marine Protected Areas within its range. In the US, it is present in many MPAs, including Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Biscayne N.P., Dry Tortugas National Park, and Buck Island Reef National Monument. Also present in Hol Chan Marine Reserve (Belize), Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park (Bahamas).

Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Artificial propagation and techniques such as cryo-preservation of gametes may become important for conserving coral biodiversity.

Having timely access to national-level trade data for CITES analysis reports would be valuable for monitoring trends this species. The species is targeted by collectors for the aquarium trade and fisheries management is required for the species, e.g., Marine Protected Areas, quotas, size limits, etc. Consideration of the suitability of species for aquaria should also be included as part of fisheries management, and population surveys should be carried out to monitor the effects of harvesting.
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Wikipedia

Siderastrea radians

Siderastrea radians, the lesser starlet coral or the shallow-water starlet coral, is a stony coral in the family Siderastreidae. It is found in shallow parts of the western Atlantic Ocean as small, solid mounds or encrusting sheets.

Description[edit]

The lesser starlet coral is either encrusting or grows in small, dimpled hummocks up to 30 centimetres (12 in) across but most colonies are much smaller than this.[2] Occasionally it occurs as small calcareous pebbles that roll around in seagrass meadows or as loose flat discs in shallow rocky places.[3] The corallites are not circular but are triangular or four-sided and deep, with 30 to 40 small ridges called septa.[2] They have a dark interior that contrasts in colour with the pale surface of the coral which is greyish, greenish or light brown.[4] The polyps are retracted back into these corallites during the day but emerge at night, extending their tentacles to feed. Each of these has a small knob of stinging cnidocytes at its tip. The lesser starlet coral can be confused with the closely related massive starlet coral (Siderastrea siderea) but that usually grows at greater depths, is larger and has less deep, more rounded corallites, each with 50 to 60 septa.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The lesser starlet coral is common in tropical parts of the western Atlantic Ocean at depths of less than 25 metres (82 ft) but is most common in under 10 metres (33 ft) of water. Its range extends from Bermuda, the Bahamas, Florida and the Caribbean Sea south to Brazil and it also occurs in the eastern Atlantic off the coast of Africa. It is found on rocks in various reef habitats and can tolerate silty environments and tide pools.[2] It is an adaptable species and in the Indian River Lagoon it has been found to tolerate temperatures varying between 13 °C (55 °F) and 31 °C (88 °F) and a wide range of salinities.[4]

Biology[edit]

The lesser starlet coral feeds at night on zooplankton which it catches with its tentacles.[5] During the day it benefits from the symbiotic zooxanthellae[1] that are found in the coenenchyme, the thin layer of living tissue that links the polyps and covers the surface of the skeletal tissue. These unicellular algae live within the host's cells and produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis and the coral makes use of these.[5]

The sexes are separate in the lesser starlet coral. Each of the twenty-eight ovaries in a female polyp produces a flattened oval egg. Spawning takes place all through the year but may be related to the phase of the moon. Well developed planula larvae have been found being brooded inside female polyps shortly before the full moon.[4]

Growth rates of the lesser starlet coral are low but, because of its great tolerance to an increase in sediment levels and to elevated temperatures, it is an important species for maintaining and restoring damaged reefs and may be useful for this purpose if sea temperatures continue to rise.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b van der Land, Jacob (2012). "Siderastrea radians (Pallas)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-07-10. 
  2. ^ a b c d Colin, Patrick L. (1978). Marine Invertebrates and Plants of the Living Reef. T.F.H. Publications. p. 235. ISBN 0-86622-875-6. 
  3. ^ "Shallow-water starlet coral (Siderastrea radians)". Interactive Guide to Caribbean Diving. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  4. ^ a b c Dineen, J. "Siderastrea radians (Lesser Starlet Coral)". Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  5. ^ a b Colin, Patrick L. (1978). Marine Invertebrates and Plants of the Living Reef. T.F.H. Publications. pp. 206–210. ISBN 0-86622-875-6. 
  6. ^ Cody, Tim (2006). Distribution, population dynamics and growth of the scleractinian coral Siderastrea radians in Bermuda. Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences. pp. 1–17. 
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