Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology: Skeleton

More info
AuthorSkeleton?Mineral or Organic?MineralPercent Magnesium
Veron, 2000 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Haeckel, 1876 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Yabe and Sugiyama, 1935 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Yabe and Sugiyama, 1935 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Yabe and Sugiyama, 1941 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Cairns, Hoeksema, and van der Land, 1999 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Crossland, 1952 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Studer, 1881 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Faustino, 1927 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
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Distribution

Range Description

In the Indo-West Pacific, this species is found in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, southwestern Indian Ocean, central Indian Ocean, central Indo-Pacific, north, west and east Australia, southern Japan and East China Sea, oceanic West Pacific, Central Pacific, Hawaii Islands and Johnston Atoll.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species lives as a free-living single polyp in reef slopes. Maximum size is 18 cm in diameter. The depth range is from 1-30 m (Hoeksema 1990). It may also reproduce asexually by budding (Hoeksema pers. comm.).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 109 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 78 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 45
  Temperature range (°C): 23.195 - 28.540
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.008 - 2.863
  Salinity (PPS): 33.378 - 35.298
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.488 - 4.948
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.076 - 0.497
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.901 - 5.408

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 45

Temperature range (°C): 23.195 - 28.540

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.008 - 2.863

Salinity (PPS): 33.378 - 35.298

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.488 - 4.948

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.076 - 0.497

Silicate (umol/l): 0.901 - 5.408
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lobactis scutaria

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACTGCTCTT---AGTATGCTTGTACGATTGGAGCTTTCTGCACCAGGTGCTATGTTAGGTGAT---GATCATCTTTATAATGTGATTGTAACTGCTCATGCTTTTATTATGATTTTTTTTTTAGTAATGCCGGTTATGATTGGGGGATTTGGAAATTGATTAGTACCATTA---TATATTGGGGCGCCAGATATGGCCTTCCCTCGATTAAATAATATTAGTTTTTGGTTATTGCCGCCTGCTTTATTTTTATTGTTGGGCTCTGCTTTTGTTGAGCAAGGTGCCGGAACAGGATGAACGGTTTATCCTCCTCTTTCTGATATTTATGCTCATTCTGGGGGTTCTGTTGATATG---GTTATTTTTAGTCTTCATTTAGCTGGAGTTTCTTCTATTTTAGGGGCAATAAATTTTATTACAACGATTTTAAATATGCGAGCTCCTGGGGTTTCTTTTAATAGAATGCCTTTGTTTGTTTGGTCAATTTTAATAACTGCTTTTTTATTATTATTATCTTTGCCTGTATTAGCGGGT---GCAATTACTATGTTATTAACAGATCGAAATTTTAATACAACTTTTTTTGATCCTTCTGGGGGTGGAGATCCCATTTTATTCCAACAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lobactis scutaria

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Hoeksema, B., Rogers, A. & Quibilan, M.

Reviewer/s
Livingstone, S., Polidoro, B. & Smith, J. (Global Marine Species Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
The most important known threat for this species is extensive reduction of coral reef habitat due to a combination of threats. Specific population trends are unknown but population reduction can be inferred from estimated habitat loss (Wilkinson 2004). It is widespread and common throughout its range and therefore is likely to be more resilient to habitat loss and reef degradation because of an assumed large effective population size that is highly connected and/or stable with enhanced genetic variability. Therefore, the estimated habitat loss of 20% from reefs already destroyed within its range is the best inference of population reduction since it may survive in coral reefs already at the critical stage of degradation (Wilkinson 2004). This inference of population reduction over three generation lengths (30 years) does not meet the threshold of a threat category and this species is Least Concern. However, because of predicted threats from climate change and ocean acidification it will be important to reassess this species in 10 years or sooner, particularly if the species is also observed to disappear from reefs currently at the critical stage of reef degradation.
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Population

Population
This species is common.

There is no species specific population information available for this species. However, there is evidence that overall coral reef habitat has declined, and this is used as a proxy for population decline for this species. This species is more resilient to some of the threats faced by corals and therefore population decline is estimated using the percentage of destroyed reefs only (Wilkinson 2004). We assume that most, if not all, mature individuals will be removed from a destroyed reef and that on average, the number of individuals on reefs are equal across its range and proportional to the percentage of destroyed reefs. Reef losses throughout the species' range have been estimated over three generations, two in the past and one projected into the future.

The age of first maturity of most reef building corals is typically three to eight years (Wallace 1999) and therefore we assume that average age of mature individuals is greater than eight years. Furthermore, based on average sizes and growth rates, we assume that average generation length is 10 years, unless otherwise stated. Total longevity is not known, but likely to be more than ten years. Therefore any population decline rates for the Red List assessment are measured over at least 30 years. Follow the link below for further details on population decline and generation length estimates.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
In general, the major threat to corals is global climate change, in particular, temperature extremes leading to bleaching and increased susceptibility to disease, increased severity of ENSO events and storms, and ocean acidification.

Coral disease has emerged as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide and a major cause of reef deterioration (Weil et al. 2006). The numbers of diseases and coral species affected, as well as the distribution of diseases have all increased dramatically within the last decade (Porter et al. 2001, Green and Bruckner 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004, Weil 2004). Coral disease epizootics have resulted in significant losses of coral cover and were implicated in the dramatic decline of acroporids in the Florida Keys (Aronson and Precht 2001, Porter et al. 2001, Patterson et al. 2002). In the Indo-Pacific, disease is also on the rise with disease outbreaks recently reported from the Great Barrier Reef (Willis et al. 2004), Marshall Islands (Jacobson 2006) and the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006). Increased coral disease levels on the GBR were correlated with increased ocean temperatures (Willis et al. 2007) supporting the prediction that disease levels will be increasing with higher sea surface temperatures. Escalating anthropogenic stressors combined with the threats associated with global climate change of increases in coral disease, frequency and duration of coral bleaching and ocean acidification place coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific at high risk of collapse.

Localized threats to corals include fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities.

The severity of these combined threats to the global population of each individual species is not known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
All corals are listed on CITES Appendix II. Parts of the species’ range fall within Marine Protected Areas.

Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Artificial propagation and techniques such as cryo-preservation of gametes may become important for conserving coral biodiversity.
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Wikipedia

Fungia scutaria

Fungia scutaria is a species of plate or mushroom coral in the family Fungiidae. It is found in the Indo-Pacific region.

Contents

Description

Fungia scutaria is a solitary, non-colonial coral that is free living and not attached to the seabed. It is discoid or elongated in shape and can grow to a very large size. The polyp can be up to 17 centimetres (6.7 in) long [2] and is embedded in a cup shaped hollow known as a corallite, surrounded by calcareous material. Lining this are narrow ribs known as septae, each having a tall tentacular lobe near its origin in the centre. The septae bear unlobed teeth and further tentacular lobes at intervals where the septae divide. Outside the corallite the ribs continue, now known as costae, bearing rows of tiny spines. The underside of the coral bears a scar resulting from its detachment from the sea bed as a juvenile. The colour varies, often being brown, yellowish or blue with contrasting tentacular lobes. The polyp has a central, slit-like mouth and a small number of short, tapering tentacles.[3][4]

Distribution and habitat

Fungia scutaria occurs in the Indian Ocean on upper reef slopes especially where there is considerable movement of the water as a result of wave action. It is usually found on sand or beds of coral fragments. It is often associated with other species of Fungia.[2]

Biology

Fungia scutaria is a carnivore and catches plankton, shrimps and fish with its tentacles.[4]

Fungia scutaria is a hermaphrodite. Eggs and sperm are ejected through the mouth and after fertilisation, develop into planula larvae which form part of the plankton. After some time these settle on the seabed and undergo metamorphosis. The juveniles attach themselves to the substrate and start feeding, extruding their hard skeletons and growing. At a later stage they become detached from their base and drift around on the sea bed. The polyps feed by day as well as by night.[4]

References

  1. ^ WoRMS (2010). "Fungia scutaria Lamarck, 1801". World Register of Marine Species. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=207341. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
  2. ^ a b Fungia scutaria Corals of the World online. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
  3. ^ Fungia (mushroom coral) Reef coral genera of the Western Indian Ocean. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
  4. ^ a b c Plate Coral- Fungia scutaria LHS Virtual Zoo. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
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