Comprehensive Description

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"Caryophyllia sp. A Squires, 1969, p. 17 (part: 3 of 4 South American records only), pl. 5, map I.--Cairns, 1979, p. 206.


Description. Corallum ceratoid, sometimes becoming cylindrical, often bent near base but rarely by more than 40º. Attached by narrow pedicel usually 2.9-3.4 mm in diameter (18-25% GCD of adult corallum). Holotype 15.6 x 14.5 mm in CD, 3.0 mm in PD, and 31.0 mm tall. Largest specimen 18.6 mm in GCD. Costae equal, smooth, porcelaneous, and bordered by very thin, intercostal striae. Calice slightly elliptical. Septa hexamerally arranged in four cycles. Sl and S2 equal in size; S3 and S4 progressively smaller. Pairs of smaller S5 present in larger coralla, flanking S4; one specimen has 10 S5, or 58 septa. These S4 then enlarged to almost size of an S3. Septa not exsert. Inner septal edges straight, except for those of S3, these sometimes sinuous. Septal granulation sparse and usually nonlinear. Granules usually low and blunt, rarely squared off, and never fused into carinae.
Fossa moderately deep. Tall, narrow pali present before S3, each separated from its corresponding septum by deep, narrow notch. Palar margins usually sinuous and granulation usually more prominent than that of septa. Pali (usually 12) often forming distinct crown but may merge indistinguishably with columella. Columella composed of 3-10 discrete, twisted ribbons aligned in plane of greater axis of calicular ellipse.


Discussion. This species corresponds to at least one lot of specimens identified by Squires (Eltanin station 558) and referred to by him (Squires, 1969 as Caryophyllia sp. A. Two more of his records are consistent with specimens at the United States National Museum; however, the other 17 records (Squires, 1969, pl. 6, map 11) from off western South America, Antarctica, and New Zealand are undocumented. Until these specimens are found and verified, the distribution of C. squiresi will remain as follows: off Tierra del Fuego and off the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
C. squiresi is similar to C. antarctica but can be distinguished by its lack of septal carinae, deeper fossa, less sinuous inner septal edges, and less exsert septa.


Etymology. This species is named in honor of D. F. Squires, who has done much to advance the knowledge of Antarctic Scleractinia and who first recognized this species.


Material. Eltanin sta. 339 (4), USNM 47516. Vema sta. 15-PD9 (1), USNM 47517, and (1), AMNH. Types.


The holotype, collected at Eltanin station 558, is deposited at the United States National Museum (47160). Twenty-two paratypes, collected at Eltanin station 558, are deposited at the United States National Museum (47161), and another specimen from the same station is deposited at the British Museum (1979.11.1.1). Type-locality: 51º58'S, 56º38'W (off East Falkland island); 646-845 m.


Depth range- 406-659 m." (Cairns, 1982 p. 16, Plate 4, figs. 5-9)


Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

Source: Antarctic Invertebrates Website (NMNH)

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