The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • George, John David and Jennifer. 1979. Marine Life. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Grzimek. 1972.
  • Hamau, Hans W. 1974. In the Coral Reefs. Doubleday, New York 87-88pp.
  • Kayemash. 1975. How Invertebrates Live. Phaidon Press, New York 128-130pp.
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Lower Animals. Animal Life Encyclopedia, 1:251.
  • Meinkoth, Norman August. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North AmericanSeashore Creatures. Chanticleer Press, New York 370-371pp.
  • Strathmann, Megumi F. Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates of the Northern Pacific Coast. University of Washington Press, Seattle 87-91pp.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Villee, Claude Alvin. 1978. General Zoology. Saunders College, New York 576pp.
  • van Ofwegen, L. (2015). Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Gray, 1860). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!