Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Size: relatively large. Plumage: black and white or all black; wings long and pointed; tail short. Other characters: legs reddish; feet with three partly webbed toes; female slightly larger than male. <389>
  • Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 241 specimens in 5 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 44 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 7.567 - 12.200
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.473 - 10.000
  Salinity (PPS): 27.525 - 35.305
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.154 - 6.963
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.273 - 0.704
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.720 - 4.416

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 7.567 - 12.200

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.473 - 10.000

Salinity (PPS): 27.525 - 35.305

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.154 - 6.963

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.273 - 0.704

Silicate (umol/l): 1.720 - 4.416
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Known prey organisms

Haematopus (oystercatcher) preys on:
Arenicola
Cardium
Macoma
Nereidae
Mytilus

Based on studies in:
Scotland, Ythan estuary (Littoral, Mudflat)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • H. Milne and G. M. Dunnet, Standing crop, productivity and trophic relations of the fauna of the Ythan estuary. In: The Estuarine Environment, R. S. K. Barnes and J. Green, Eds. (Applied Science Publications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972), pp. 86-106, from
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Classification

In separate family Haematopidae in Urban et al (1986)
  • Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:223Public Records:196
Specimens with Sequences:204Public Species:11
Specimens with Barcodes:204Public BINs:3
Species:11         
Species With Barcodes:11         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Haematopus

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Wikipedia

Oystercatcher

Texas City Dike, Texas
American oystercatcher
Juvenile

The oystercatchers are a group of waders forming the family Haematopodidae, which has a single genus, Haematopus. They are found on coasts worldwide apart from the polar regions and some tropical regions of Africa and South East Asia. The exception to this is the Eurasian oystercatcher and the South Island oystercatcher, both of which breed inland, far inland in some cases. In the past there has been a great deal of confusion as to the species limits, with discrete populations of all black oystercatchers being afforded specific status but pied oystercatchers being considered one single species.[1]

The name oystercatcher was coined by Mark Catesby in 1731 as a common name for the North American species H. palliatus, described as eating oysters.[2] Yarrell in 1843 established this as the preferred term, replacing the older name sea pie.[2]

Appearance and habits[edit]

The different species of oystercatcher show little variation in shape or appearance. They range from 39–50 cm (15–20 in) in length and 72–91 cm (28–36 in) in wingspan. The Eurasian oystercatcher is the lightest on average, at 526 g (1.160 lb), while the sooty oystercatcher is the heaviest, at 819 g (1.806 lb).[3] The plumage of all species is either all-black, or black (or dark brown) on top and white underneath. The variable oystercatcher is slightly exceptional in being either all-black or pied. They are large, obvious, and noisy plover-like birds, with massive long orange or red bills used for smashing or prying open molluscs. The bill shape varies between species, according to the diet. Those birds with blade-like bill tips pry open or smash mollusc shells, and those with pointed bill tips tend to probe for annelid worms. They show sexual dimorphism, with females being longer-billed and heavier than males.[1]

The diet of oystercatchers varies with location. Species occurring inland feed upon earthworms and insect larvae.[1] The diet of coastal oystercatchers is more varied, although dependent upon coast type; on estuaries bivalves, gastropods and polychaete worms are the most important part of the diet, whereas rocky shore oystercatchers prey upon limpets, mussels, gastropods, and chitons. Other prey items include echinoderms, fish, and crabs.

Nearly all species of oystercatcher are monogamous, although there are reports of polygamy in the Eurasian oystercatcher. They are territorial during the breeding season (with a few species defending territories year round). There is strong mate and site fidelity in the species that have been studied, with one record of a pair defending the same site for 20 years. A single nesting attempt is made per breeding season, which is timed over the summer months. The nests of oystercatchers are simple affairs, scrapes in the ground which may be lined, and placed in a spot with good visibility. The eggs of oystercatchers are spotted and cryptic. Between one and four eggs are laid, with three being typical in the Northern Hemisphere and two in the south. Incubation is shared but not proportionally, females tend to take more incubation and males engage in more territory defence. Incubation varies by species, lasting between 24–39 days. Oystercatchers are also known to practice "egg dumping." Like the cuckoo, they sometimes lay their eggs in the nests of other species such as seagulls, abandoning them to be raised by those birds.[4]

One species of oystercatcher became extinct during the 20th century, the Canary Islands oystercatcher. Another species, the Chatham oystercatcher, which is endemic to the Chatham Islands of New Zealand, is listed as endangered by the IUCN, and the African oystercatcher is considered near threatened. In the past there has been conflict with commercial shellfish farmers, but studies have found that the impact of oystercatchers is much smaller than that of shore crabs.

Species[edit]

Species in taxonomic order
Common nameBinomialImage
Magellanic oystercatcherH. leucopodus
Magellanic Oystercatcher.jpg
Blackish oystercatcherH. ater
Haematopus ater.jpg
Black oystercatcherH. bachmani
Black Oystercatcher.jpg
American oystercatcherH. palliatus
American Oystercatcher.jpg
Canary Islands oystercatcherH. meadewaldoi
Canarian Oystercatcher.jpg
African oystercatcherH. moquini
African Black Oystercatcher, (Haematopus moquini) standing on the sand.jpg
Eurasian oystercatcherH. ostralegus
Haematopus ostralegus He.jpg
Pied oystercatcherH. longirostris
Pied Oystercatcher.jpg
South Island oystercatcherH. finschi
South Island pied oystercatcher 2c.JPG
Chatham oystercatcherH. chathamensis
Variable oystercatcherH. unicolor
Variable Oystercatcher.jpg
Sooty oystercatcherH. fuliginosus
Sooty Oystercatcher.jpg

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Hockey, P (1996) Family Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers) in del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors). (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-20-2
  2. ^ a b Lockwood, W B (1993). The Oxford Dictionary of British Bird Names. OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-866196-2. 
  3. ^ John B. Dunning Jr. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5. 
  4. ^ "Birds Dumping Eggs on the Neighbors". Sciencedaily.com. 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2012-12-20. 
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