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 Life habit: lichenized, not lichenicolous; Thallus: crustose, areolate to verrucose; prothallus: black; areoles: flat to bullate, contiguous or dispersed, round or angular, often divided in several knobs, 0.3-1.4 mm wide; surface: brown to grayish brown to gray, sometimes cream-colored, smooth, usually a little pruinose, esorediate; cortex: composed of a few cells of hyphae the uppermost with a dark cap, with a thin polysaccharide layer; Apothecia: dispersed or aggregated, round or somewhat angular, 0.4-1.6 mm in diam.; disc: black, flat or convex, +papillate, epruinose; margin: black, rarely thin, mostly lacking; exciple: narrow, brownish-black to carboneous, well distinct from the hypothecium in color, K+ red; epihymenium: reddish brown, K+ violet; hymenium: hyaline below to pale red above, 100-120 µm tall; paraphyses: coherent, capitate, with reddish-brown to hyaline tips (very variable within the same apothecium), K+ intensely red with few exceptions; hypothecium: light brown; asci: clavate, 80-100 x 25-40 µm, 8-spored; ascospores: brown to reddish brown, 1-septate, rarely with one or two additional septa, constricted, (22-)26-36 x 13-16 µm, halonate; Pycnidia: not seen; Spot tests: medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-; Secondary metabolites: unknown.; Substrate and ecology: on siliceous rocks often near running water; World distribution: holarctic; Sonoran distribution: eastern Arizona. 


Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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