The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Durham, J. W., H. B. Fell, A. G. Fischer, et al. / Durham, J. Wyatt, et al. / Moore, Raymond C., ed. 1966. Echinoids. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part U, Echinodermata 3, vol. 1 and vol. 2. U211-U640
- P. M. Duncan. 1889. A revision of the genera and great groups of the Echinoidea. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology 23:1-311
- References are quoted in the article.
- Serafy, D. Keith. 1979. Echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises, vol. V, pt. III. 1-120