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 Thallus: shrubby to subpendant, 2 to 12 cm long, forming dense erect to subpendant tufts; branching: anisotomicdichotomous; basal part: concolorous with the branches, to distinctly blackened; branches: cylindrical to irregular, inconspicuously segmented; lateral branches: not narrowed at point of attachment; segments: terete and ±cylindrical, sometimes slightly swollen, foveoles or transversal furrows often present; papillae: usually numerous especially on main branches, verrucous to cylindrical; tubercles and fibercles: generally absent; fibrils: unevenly distributed; soralia: deeply excavate, tearing off the cortex around the soralia, as large as the branches when mature, often reaching the central axis and encircling the branches, ±widely spaced and usually not confluent, arising initially on the cortex; soredia: generally farinose; isidiomorphs: always absent; Apothecia: not seen; cortex: thin (5-7%); medulla: thick, lax to dense; axis: thin to moderately thick; Spot tests: medulla K+ yellow turning dark red (or deep yellow), C-, KC-, P+ orange or K-, C-, KC-, P+ deep yellow; Secondary metabolite: salazinic acid (major) or psoromic acid (major), respectively relative to spot tests.; Substrate and ecology: on bark, especially on Abies spp., Pinus spp., Picea spp, and Quercus spp., usually in mixed conifer forests, between 2300 and 3400 m; World distribution: holarctic, mainly in continental areas; Sonoran distribution: common at upper elevations in Arizona and extending to Chihuahua, rare in coastal areas of southern California and Baja California.; Notes: For differences between Usnea lapponica and U. fulvoreagens, see under the latter species. 

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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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