Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: Is found in Europe, Asia, North America and Africa (Zoller et al. 1999). Occurs in North America on both coasts. In the east, it ranges from Newfoundland and Labrador south to Virginia, and inland to Kentucky and Indiana. In the west, it ranges from Newfoundland and Labrador east throughout much of Quebec and Ontario and south through Michigan. It does not occur in the central part of North America. In the west, it occurs from coastal Alaska south to British Columbia, where it occurs inland, and south through Washington, coastal Oregon, and California (Brodo et al. 2000).
Lobaria pseudoplumonaria is similar to L. pulmonaria, however, the former has cyanobacteria as the main photobiont and lacks soredia and isidia; it is found in many parts of Alaska (Brodo et al. 2000).
In the Pacific Northwest, Lobaria pulmonaria, is the most widespread species in the genus, and is easily recognized by its greenish color when wet, the presence of soredia, and the network of coarse ridges on the upper surface. Young specimens might be confused with L. linita, but can be distinguished by its negative K and P tests (McCune and Geiser 2009).
Comments: Occurs on trees, mossy rocks and wood in mature forests most often in the shade (Brodo et al. 2001).
In the Pacific Northwest, moist lowland to mid-elevation forests in areas of strong coastal influence. In the east Cascade Mountains it is associated with old-growth forests, and found ain riparian areas in sheltered valleys. West of the Cascades this lichen is more strongly associated with hardwoods than confer forests (McCune and Geiser 2009). It has been noted that all species of Lobaria good indicators of rich, unpolluted and often very old forests (Brodo et al. 2001).
Lichen / parasite
Cornutispora anamorph of Cornutispora lichenicola parasitises decaying, bleached thallus of Lobaria pulmonaria
Lichen / symbiont
more or less superficial apothecium of Dactylospora lobariella lives on/in thallus of Lobaria pulmonaria
Lichen / saprobe
mycelium of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella hughesii is saprobic on decaying thallus of Lobaria pulmonaria
Lichen / gall
ascoma of Plectocarpon lichenum causes galls on galled thallus of Lobaria pulmonaria
Lichen / parasite
basidiocarp of Tremella lobariacearum parasitises live thallus of Lobaria pulmonaria
It is a food source for moose in northeastern North America (Brodo et al. 2000).
Life History and Behavior
Persistence: PERENNIAL, Long-lived
Studies have indicated that this species is heterothallic, and that it is self-incompatible, requiring an exchange between two different genotypes for apothecial development. It has also been found to have poor dispersal abilities (Zoller et al. 1999).
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Lobaria pulmonaria is the most common Lobaria in North America. This lichen species occurs from Alaska south to central California and from the Great Lakes region and Appalachia to Newfoundland. This species typically grows in mature, relatively shaded forests on a variety of substrates. It and other Lobaria species are good indicators of rich, very old-growth forests and are good indicators of good air quality (Brodo et al. 2000). While it appears that this species is stable in North America, it is declining in Europe.
Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable to decline of 30%
Comments: Brodo et al. comments that this species is deminishing in abundance, but does not state the reasons why (2001). Further, Grube and Kroken (2000) note that this species has declined drastically in Europe.
Comments: In Switzerland, Lobaria pulmonaria is in decline due to habitat destruction, changes in forest management, and air pollution. It is sensitive to acidic air pollution and ozone. The genetic diversity in some populations is low (Zoller et al. 1999)
It has been noted in Brodo et al. (2001) and Grube and Kroken (2000) that this species is declining in Europe, but no information was provided regarding the causes. Grube and Kroken (2000) note that the genetic diversity of this species in Europe is declining since individuals that are remaining are only asexual morphs, and few polymorphic loci were found (which represent genetic variability).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Comments: Lobaria pulmonaria has long been used as a source of boiling water dye. It also has herbalistic qualities and has been used to treat lung diseases, asthma, hemorrages, and eczema. It has also been brewed for tea. Finally, L. pulmonaria is used in forest monitoring regimes because it is an indicator of unpolluted, and often very old forests (Brodo et al. 2000).
Stewardship Overview: Forests where Lobaria pulmonaria occur should be carefully managed. This species has seen a slow but drastic decline in Europe, and together existing threats and life history characteristics can inform its management. The Lung lichen is slow to reproduce, on the order of 25 years for one reproduction cycle to complete, is very slow growing, with poor establishment on new trees (Zoller et al. 1999). Further, it is suspected that this species is self-incompatible (Zoller et al. 1999) and that genetic exchange between two different genotypes has to take place in order for apothecia to be created.
With these principles in mind, Zoller et al. (1999) recommend transplantation of soredia or small bits of thalli from more diverse populations into smaller, less diverse populations in plots studied in Switzerland. Given the constraints from self-incompatibility, introduction of new genotypes into a population should cause the population to increase. These practices are appropriate for very small populations where declines have been observed.
In North America, forest management practices should be performed in order to preserve the greatest number of individuals as possible, and to limit the distance between host tree and trees where the lichen can spread, due to its poor dispersal capability, and it's self-incompatibility. Monitoring populations of this species in managed-forests should also be done when possible given the slow but dramatic declines observed in Europe.
Lobaria pulmonaria is a large epiphytic lichen consisting of an ascomycete fungus and a green algal partner living together in a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium—a symbiosis involving members of three kingdoms of organisms. Commonly known by various names like tree lungwort, lung lichen, lung moss, lungwort lichen, oak lungs or oak lungwort, it is sensitive to air pollution and is also negatively affected by habitat loss and changes in forestry practices. Its population has declined across Europe and L. pulmonaria is considered endangered in many lowland areas. The species has a history of use in herbal medicines, and recent research has corroborated some medicinal properties of lichen extracts.
It is a foliose lichen and its leaf-like thallus is green, leathery and lobed with a pattern of ridges and depressions on the upper surface. Bright green under moist conditions, it becomes brownish and papery when dry. This species often has a fine layers of hairs, a tomentum, on its lower surface. The cortex, the outer protective layer on the thallus surface, is roughly comparable to the epidermis of a green plant. The thallus is typically 5–15 centimetres (2.0–5.9 in) in diameter, with individual lobes 1–3 centimetres (0.39–1.18 in) wide and up to 7 cm long. The asexual reproductive structures soredia and isidia are present on the thallus surface. Minute (0.5–1.5 mm in diameter) cephalodia—pockets of cyanobacteria—are often present on the lower surface of the thallus; these spots are conspicuously darker than the green surface of the thallus. Like other foliose lichens, the thallus is only loosely attached to the surface on which it grows.
The thallus contains internal structures known as cephalodia, characteristic of three-membered lichen symbioses involving two photobionts (the photosynthetic symbionts in the fungal-algal lichen relationship). These internal cephalodia, found between the "ribs" of the thallus surface, arise when blue-green algae (from the genus Nostoc) on the thallus surface are enveloped during mycobiont growth. Structurally, cephalodia consist of dense aggregates of Nostoc cells surrounded by thin-walled hyphae—this delimits them from the rest of the thallus which contains a loose structure of thick-walled hyphae. Blue-green cyanobacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen, enhancing nutrient availability for the lichen. The other photobiont of L. pulmonaria is the green algae Dictyochloropsis reticulata.
L. pulmonaria has the ability to form both vegetative propagation and sexual propagules at an age of about 25 years. In sexual reproduction, the species produces small reddish-brown discs known as apothecia containing asci, from which spores are forcibly released into the air (like ballistospores). Based on studies of ascospore germination, it has been suggested that L. pulmonaria spores use some mechanism to inhibit germination—the inhibition is lifted when the spores are grown in a synthetic growth medium containing an adsorbent like bovine serum albumin or α-cyclodextrin.
Dispersal by vegetative propagules (via soredia or isidia) has been determined as the predominant mode of reproduction in L. pulmonaria. In this method, the protruding propagules become dry and brittle during the regular wet/dry cycles of the lichen, and can easily crumble off the thallus. These fragments may develop into new thalli, either at the same locale or at a new site after dispersal by wind or rain. A number of steps are required for the development of the vegetative propagules, including the degeneration of the thallus cortex, replication of green algal cells, and entanglement of fungal hyphae with the green algal cells. This steps lead to an increase in internal pressure which eventually breaks through the cortex. Continued growth leads to these granules being pushed upwards and out of the thallus surface.
Distribution and habitat
It has a wide distribution in Europe, Asia, North America and Africa, preferring damp habitats with high rainfall, especially coastal areas. It is the most widely distributed and most common Lobaria species in North America. Associated with old-growth forests, its presence and abundance may be used as an indicator of forest age, at least in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone in eastern British Columbia. It is also found in pasture-woodlands. It usually grows on the bark of broad-leaved trees such as oak, beech and maple but will also grow on rocks. In the laboratory, L. pulmonaria has been grown on nylon microfilaments. Various environmental factors are thought to affect the distribution of L. pulmonaria, such as temperature, moisture (average humidity, rapidity and frequency of wet-dry cycles), sunlight exposure, and levels of air pollution. Attempts to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of these factors to lichen growth is difficult because differences in the original environment from which the lichen thalli are collected will greatly affect heat and desiccation tolerances.
Due to declining population, L. pulmonaria is considered to be rare or threatened in many parts of the world, especially in lowland areas of Europe. The decline has been attributed to industrial forestry and air pollution, particularly acid rain. L. pulmonaria, like other lichens containing a blue-green algal component, are particularly susceptible to the effects of acid rain, because the subsequent decrease in pH reduces nitrogen fixation through inhibition of the algal nitrogenase enzyme.
L. pulmonaria is known to contain a variety of acids common to lichens, such as stictic acid, desmethyl stictic acid, gyrophoric acid, tenuiorin, constictic acid, norstictic acid, peristictic acid, and methylnorstictic acid. These compounds, collectively known as depsidones, are known to be involved in defense against grazing herbivores like lichen-feeding molluscs. It also contains the sugar alcohols D-arabitol, volemitol, in addition to several carotenoids (total content > 10 mg/kg), such as alpha carotene, beta carotene, and beta cryptoxanthin. The upper cortex of the lichen contains melanins that screen UV and PAR radiation from the photobiont. The synthesis of melanin pigments in the lichen increases in response to greater solar irradiation, and shade-adapted thalli are greenish-grey in the air-dry state, while sun-exposed thalli can be dark brown in color. This adaptation helps protect the photosymbiont D. reticulata, known to be relatively intolerant to high light levels.
Its shape somewhat resembles the tissue inside lungs and therefore it is thought to be a remedy for lung diseases based on the doctrine of signatures. The lichen's common English names are derived from this association. Gerard's book The Herball or General Historie of plants (1597) recommends L. pulmonaria as medicinally valuable. It is still used for asthma, urinary incontinence and lack of appetite. In India it is used as a traditional medicine to treat hemorrhages and eczema, and it is used as a remedy for coughing up blood by the Hesquiaht in British Columbia, Canada. An ethnophytotherapeutical survey of the high Molise region in central-southern Italy revealed that L. pulmonaria is used as an antiseptic, and is rubbed on wounds.
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