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 Thallus: crustose areolate to granulose, scattered, areolate; areoles: 0.25-0.5 mm wide, angular to irregular in outline; surface: dull black, rough to granulose; attachment: by rhizohyphae; Apothecia: sessile, zeorine, small, up to 0.5 mm wide, with thin thalline margin; disc: opening early in development, flat, dark red, receding with age; exciple: distinct (already distinct in juvenile apothecia), often visible as a light ring surrounding the apothecial disc, color faintly yellow to golden, composed of interwoven, gelatinized hyphae; epihymenium: brownish red; hymenium: 100-120 micrometer high, hyaline, amyloid; paraphyses: distinctly septate, branched and anastomosing, apical cells thickened (3-5 micrometer) and colored reddish-brown; asci: 8-spored; ascospores: simple, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, (10-) 12.5-17.5 (-22.5) x (7.5-) 10-12.5 (-15) micrometer; walls: thin; Pycnidia: immersed, globose, 0.1-0.125 mm wide, simple; wall: convoluted with age; conidia: ellipsoid, 3-4 x 1.5 micrometer; Spot tests: all negative; Secondary products: none detected.; Substrate and ecology: on caliche crusts, limestone and rhyolite, and on small pebbles in washes; in sheltered or rather exposed habitats; montane; World distribution: Europe and SW North America; Sonoran distribution: south-central Arizona.; Notes: the species is extremely similar to Psorotichia and Porocyphus, but they lack L. arnoldiana’s characteristic yellowish to golden color of the entire excipulum. Porocyphus also has a distinct exciple that is sometimes yellowish brown colored, but only in the uppermost parts; it mainly differs from Lemmopsis in its type of ascoma development (pycnoascoma) and its slender paraphyses. Furthermore, if Psorotichia has an exciple, then it lacks coloration and is very thin. Also the subhymenium of Psorotichia usually extends as a stipe deep into the thallus (not found in Lemmopsis). 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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