The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arnold, Augusta Foote. 1903. Sea-Beach at Ebb-Tide. New York : Century Co.; Plate LVI
  • B. A. Menge, J. Lubchenco, S. D. Gaines and L. R. Ashkenas, A test of the Menge-Sutherland model of community organization in a tropical rocky intertidal food web, Oecologia (Berlin) 71:75-89, from p. 85 (1986).
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • C. A. Simenstad, J. A. Estes, K. W. Kenyon, Aleuts, sea otters, and alternate stable-state communities, Science 200:403-411, from p. 404 (1978).
  • Ellers, O; Johnson, AS; Mober, PE. 1998. Structural strengthening of urchin skeletons by collagenous sutural ligaments. The Biological Bulletin. 195(2): 136-144.
  • Ellers, O; Telford, M. 1992. Causes and consequences of fluctuating coelomic pressure in sea urchins. The Biological Bulletin. 182(3): 424-434.
  • Fautin D, Dalton P, Incze LS, Leong J-AC, Pautzke C, et al. 2010. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11914. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011914
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Fujikura K, Lindsay D, Kitazato H, Nishida S, Shirayama. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11836. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011836
  • Hendler, Gordon, John E. Miller, David L. Pawson, and Porter M. Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. xi + 390
  • J. C. Castilla, Perspectivas de investigacion en estructura y dinamica de communidades intermareales rocosas de Chile Central. II. Depredadores de alto nivel trofico, Medio Ambiente 5(1-2):190-215, from p. 203 (1981).
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
  • Opitz S (1996) Trophic interactions in Caribbean coral reefs. ICLARM Tech Rep 43, Manila, Philippines
  • Smith, Andrew B. 1984. Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology, vol 27, pt. 3. 431-459
  • Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
  • Telford, M. 1985. Domes, arches and urchins: the skeletal architecture of echinoids (Echinodermata). Zoomorphology. 105: 125-134.


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