The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • Hansson, H. (2013). Crinoidea. In: Messing, C. (2013) World List of Crinoidea. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=123081
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  • Hendler, Gordon, John E. Miller, David L. Pawson, and Porter M. Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. xi + 390
  • Holland, N.D., Grimmer, J.C. & Wiegmann, K. 1991. The structure of the sea lily Calamocrinus diomedeae, with special reference to the articulations, skeletal microstructure, symbiotic bacteria, axial organs, and stalk tissues (Crinoidea, Millericrinida). Zoomorphology 110:115-132.
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  • J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
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  • Kelly, S.M. 1982. Origin of the crinoid orders Disparida and Cladida: Possible inadunate cup plate homologies. Third North American Paleontological Convention Proceedings, Vol. I:285-290.
  • Kelly, S.M. 1986. Classification and evolution of class Crinoidea. Abstracts of the Fourth North American Paleontological Converence, A23.
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  • Messing, C.G. 1987. To the Deep Reef and Beyond. Deep Ocean Society, Miami, Florida, 30p.
  • Messing, C.G. 1994. Comatulid crinoids (Echinodermata) of Madang, Papua New Guinea, and environs: Diversity and ecology. pp. 237-243 IN: David, B., Guille, A., Feral, J.-P. & Roux, M. (eds.) Echinoderms through Time. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  • Messing, C.G., Rosesmyth, M.C., Mailer, S.R. Miller, J.E. 1988. Relocation movement in a stalked crinoid (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Bull. Mar. Sci. 42:480-487.
  • Meyer, D.L. & Ausich, W.I. 1983. Biotic interactions among recent and fossil crinoids. pp. 377-425 IN: Tevesz, M.J.S. & McCall, P.L. (eds.) Biotic interactions in recent and fossil benthic communities. Plenum, NY.
  • Meyer, D.L. & Lane, N.G. 1976. Feeding biology of modern basketstars and some Paleozoic crinoids. J. Paleontol. 50:473-480.
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  • Roux, M. 1985. Les crinoïdes pédonculés (Echinodermes) de l'Atlantique N.E.: inventaire, Écologie et biogéographie. pp. 479-489 In: L. Laubier & C. Monniot (eds.), Peuplements profonds du golfe de Gascogne. IFREMER.
  • Rutman, J. & Fishelson, L. 1969. Food composition and feeding behavior of shallow-water crinoids at Eilat (Red Sea). Mar. Biol. 3:46-57.
  • Simms, M.J. 1988. The phylogeny of post-Paleozoic crinoids. pp. 269-284 In: Paul, C.R.C. & Smith, A.B. (eds.), Echinoderm Phylogeny and Evolutionary Biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Simms, M.J. & Sevastopulo, G.D. 1993. The origin of Articulate crinoids. Palaeontology 36(1):91-109.
  • Simms, M.J. 1994. Reinterpretation of thecal plate homlogy and phylogeny in the class Crinoidea. Lethaia 26:303-312.
  • Smith, Andrew B. 1984. Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology, vol 27, pt. 3. 431-459
  • Sprinkle, J. & D. Collins. 1995. Echmatocrinus revisited: still an echinoderm and probably the oldest crinoid. Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstr. with Prog. 27:A113-A114.
  • Sprinkle, J. & T.E. Guensburg. 1997. How the crinoid got its cup plating: Arm brachials down plus stem (penta)meres up. Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstr. with Prog. 29:A-341.
  • Ubaghs, G. 1953. Classe des Crinoides. pp. 658-773 In: J. Piveteau (ed.), Traité de Paléontologie 3. Masson et Cie, Paris.
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