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 Life habit: lichenized, not lichenicolous; Thallus: crustose, areolate; prothallus: distinct; areoles: flat to warty convex or almost globose, without differentiated margins, 0.2-1 mm in diam.; surface: gray to gray-brown, rarely distinctly brown (mostly due to abrasion or injury), dull; cortex: brown above, 5-15 µm thick, overlain with c. 10 µm thick epinecral layer; Apothecia: black, 0.4-0.9 mm wide; disc: black, convex; margin: black, thin or mostly absent; exciple: colorless with black margin; epihymenium: red-brown to brown-black, partly fused into a pseudoparenchymatous tissue, K+ red; hymenium: hyaline, 100-150 µm tall; paraphyses: tips fused into a pseudoparenchymatous tissue; hypothecium: brown; asci: clavate, 1-spored; ascospores: brown to dark brown, muriform, ellipsoid, 4878 x 18-33 µm; Pycnidia: frequent, black, globose, on the prothallus; conidia: hyaline, filiform, 8-14 x 0.3-0.6 µm; Spot tests: thallus usually K+ weakly yellow or rarely K+ strong yellow or K-, P- or P+ reddish; Secondary metabolites: +norstictic acid.; Substrate and ecology: on siliceous rocks, including sandstones; World distribution: in semi-arid regions of western North America, Greenland, Europe and South America (Bolivia); Sonoran distribution: Arizona, southern California, Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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