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 Thallus: squamulose, often occurring in patches of squamules several cm wide; squamules: orbicular to somewhat angulate or lobulate, up to 4 mm diam.; margins: smooth, thickened and upturned; upper surface: pale to olivaceous brown or grayish green, dull, not sorediate; upper cortex: not developed but with a well developed epinecral layer, often with numerous airspaces (thus giving the thallus a grayish appearance); medulla: paraplectenchymatous; algal layer: 60-120 µm thick; lower cortex: 30-40 µm thick, of 2-8 layers of isodiametric or globose cells; lower surface: paler than the upper surface, attached by a tuft of hyphae; Apothecia: immersed, 1-20 per squamule, with a raised rim when mature; disc: yellowish to reddish brown, up to 1 mm in diam.; epihymenium: yellowish brown, K+ red-violet or rarely K-; hymenium: I+ blue-green, becoming wine-red; asci: obclavate; wall: I+ orange but blue after pretreatment with K, >100-spored; ascospores: globose to subglobose, 3-8 (-9) x 3-6 µm; Pycnidia: no data; conidia: fusiform, 3.7-4.3 x 1.2-2.8 µm; Spot tests: all negative; Secondary metabolites: none detected.; Substrate and ecology: on soil, frequently with a high calcium content in deserts and other open, arid habitats; World distribution: SW and north central North America to central Mexico, India, Australia, southern Europe, Africa, and the Cape Verde Islands; Sonoran distribution: desert areas of Arizona, southern California, Sonora, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora and Chihuahua. 

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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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