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 Thallus: foliose, ± orbicular, 2-7 (-12) cm wide, tightly or loosely adnate, with or without concentric rings, lobate,; lobes: broadly flabellate or cuneate, 1-4 (-7) mm wide, contiguous to imbricate, lobulate and branched; apices: broader than interior parts of the lobes, usually incised, rounded and deflexed; upper surface: usually dark lead gray when dry, bluish green to brownish black when wet, smooth, usually glossy, epruinose, sometimes with concentric, curved ridges, rarely scabrid, isidiate; isidia: granular initially, becoming simple and terete (rarely flattened) and sometimes coralloid branched, scarce or forming a dense mat; upper cortex: hyaline or pale yellow, 12-20 µm thick, with an epicortex; cortex: hyaline to black, 12-20 µm thick; medulla: white or pale yellow, loose hyphae, 30-60 µm thick; lower surface: usually pale, brown or black, glabrous, rhizinate; rhizines: white, light to dark brown or black (black in Sonoran material), scarce to numerous, sometimes forming a dense hypothallus; Apothecia: infrequent, laminal, irregularly orbicular, up to 1-3 (-4.5) mm wide, adnate or sessile; margin: thin, with proper one only visible in young apothecia, sometimes with white hairs (especially towards base of apothecia and hidden when viewed from above); disc: pale brownish red to black (black in Sonoran material), flat to strongly convex; exciple: hyaline or light brown, up to 110 µm thick but covered by disc; epihymenium: pale yellow or brownish or black, 4-9 µm thick; hymenium: colorless, 40-70 µm high; paraphyses: ± branched, septate, 2-5 µm thick, apically capitate; subhymenium: pale brown to almost black, up to 100 µm thick; asci: narrowly clavate, 40-60 x 8-15 µm, 8-spored; ascospores: , narrowly to broadly fusiform to ellipsoid, hyaline, simple, often with two oil droplets, 7-14 x 3-5 µm; Pycnidia: usually laminal, immersed, ostiole dark; conidia: bacilliform, 2-4 x 1 µm; Spot tests: all negative; Secondary metabolites: none detected.; Habitat and ecology: on rocks and soil among mosses in moist habitats, but also on tree trunks (Quercus etc.); World distribution: pantropical and subtropical with a few outlying temperate to arctic localities; Sonoran distribution: scattered locations in SE Arizona and south along the Sierra Madre Occidental in Sinaloa and Sonora. 

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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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