The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bradley, R.A. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Breene, R. G., D. Allen Dean, G. B. Edwards, Blain Hebert, Herbert W. Levi, Gail Manning, et al. 2003. Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. 42
  • Bruvo-Madaric B., Huber B.A., Steinacher A., Pass G. 2005. Phylogeny of pholcid spiders (Araneae:Pholcidae): combined analysis using morphology and molecules. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 661-673.
  • Candek, Klemen, Gregoric, Matjaz, Kostanjsek, Rok, Frick, Holger, Kropf, Christian, Kuntner, Matjaz, Miller, Jeremy A., Hoeksema, Bert W. (2013): Targeting a portion of central European spider diversity for permanent preservation. Biodiversity Data Journal 1, 980: 980-980, URL:
  • Deltshev, Christo, Komnenov, Marjan, Blagoev, Gergin, Georgiev, Teodor, Lazarov, Stoyan, Stojkoska, Emilija, Naumova, Maria (2013): Faunistic diversity of spiders (Araneae) in Galichitsa mountain (FYR Macedonia). Biodiversity Data Journal 1, 977: 977-977, URL:
  • Dimitrov, D., J.J. Astrin, and B.A. Huber. 2013. Pholcid spider molecular systematics revisited, with new insights into the biogeography and the evolution of the group. Cladistics 29: 132–146.
  • Eberhard W.G., Briceño R.D. 1983. Chivalry in pholcid spiders. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 13: 189–195.
  • Gerhardt U. 1921. Vergleichende Studien über die orphologie des männlichen Tasters und die Biologie der Kopulation der Spinnen. Arch. Naturgesch. 87: 78–247.
  • Gerhardt U. 1923. Weitere sexualbiologische Untersuchung an Spinnen. Arch. Naturgesch. 89: 1–225.
  • Gerhardt U. 1924. Weitere Studien über die Biologie der Spinnen. Arch. Naturgesch. 90: 85–192.
  • Gerhardt U. 1927. Neue biologische Untersuchungen an einheimischen und ausländischen Spinnen. Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere 8: 96–186.
  • Gerhardt U. 1929. Zur vergleichenden Sexualbiologie primitiver Spinnen, insbesondere der Tetrapneumonen. Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere 14: 699–764.
  • Huber B.A. 1994. Genital morphology, copulatory mechanism and reproductive biology in Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911) (Pholcidae; Araneae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 44(1-2): 85-99.
  • Huber B.A. 1995. Copulatory mechanism in Holocnemus pluchei and Pholcus opilionoides, with notes on male cheliceral apophyses and stridulatory organs in Pholcidae (Araneae). Acta Zoologica, Stockholm 76(4): 291-300.
  • Huber B.A. 1997a. Evidence for gustatorial courtship in a haplogyne spider (Hedypsilus culicinus: Pholcidae: Araneae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 47(1): 95-98.
  • Huber B.A. 1997b. On American ‘Micromerys’ and Metagonia (Araneae, Pholcidae), with notes on natural history and genital mechanics. Zoologica Scripta 25(4): 341-363.
  • Huber B.A. 1998. Genital mechanics in some neotropical pholcid spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae), with implications for systematics. Journal of Zoology, London 244: 587-599.
  • Huber B.A. 2000. New World pholcid spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae): a revision at generic level. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 254: 1–348.
  • Huber B.A. 2002. Functional morphology of the genitalia in the spider Spermophora senoculata (Pholcidae, Araneae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 241(2):105-116.
  • Huber B.A. 2003a. High species diversity in one of the dominant groups of spiders in East African montane forests (Araneae: Pholcidae: Buitinga n. gen., Spermophora Hentz). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 555–619.
  • Huber B.A. 2003b. Cladistic analysis of Malagasy pholcid spiders reveals generic level endemism: revision of Zatavua n. gen. and Paramicromerys Millot (Pholcidae, Araneae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 261–318.
  • Huber B.A. 2003c. Southern African pholcid spiders: Revision and cladistic analysis of Quamtana gen. nov. and Spermophora Hentz (Araneae: Pholcidae), with notes on male-female covariation. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 139: 477–527.
  • Huber B.A. 2004. Evolutionary transformation from muscular to hydraulic movements in spider (Arachnida, Araneae) genitalia: a study based on histological serial sections. Journal of Morphology 261: 364-376.
  • Huber B.A. 2005a. The pholcid spiders of Africa (Araneae: Pholcidae): state of knowledge and directions for future research. In: Huber B.A., Sinclair B.J., Lampe K.-H. (eds.) African Biodiversity: Molecules, Organisms, Ecosystems, pp. 181-186. Springer Verlag.
  • Huber B.A. 2005b. High species diversity, male-female coevolution, and metaphyly in Southeast Asian pholcid spiders: the case of Belisana Thorell 1898 (Araneae, Pholcidae). Zoologica 155: 1-126.
  • Huber B.A. 2006. Cryptic female exaggeration: the asymmetric female internal genitalia of Kaliana yuruani (Araneae: Pholcidae). Journal of Morphology 276: 705-712.
  • Huber B.A. 2007. Two new genera of small, six-eyed pholcid spiders from West Africa, and first record of Spermophorides for mainland Africa (Araneae: Pholcidae). Zootaxa 1635: 23-43.
  • Huber B.A., Eberhard W.G. 1997. Courtship, copulation, and genital mechanics in Physocyclus globosus (Araneae, Pholcidae). Can. J. Zool. 74: 905–918.
  • Huber, B.A. 2005. Pholcidae. Pp. 194-196 in D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing, and V. Roth (eds.) Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnological Society.
  • Huber, B.A. 2011. Phylogeny and classification of Pholcidae (Araneae): an update. The Journal of Arachnology 39:211–222.
  • Manhart, C. 1994. Spiders on bark in a tropical rainforest (Panguana, Peru). Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 29(1): 49–53.
  • Platnick N.I. 2009. The world spider catalog, version 9.5. American Museum of Natural History, online at
  • Platnick, N. I. 2013. The world spider catalog, version 14.0. American Museum of Natural History, online at
  • Uhl G., Huber B.A., Rose W. 1995. Male pedipalp morphology and copulatory mechanism in Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775) (Araneae, Pholcidae). Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 10(1): 1–9.


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