The genus Polygonia is holarctic. The adult wings have strongly crenulated margins with brownish patterns on the underside that render the butterflies virtually invisible when they land on dead leaves. Several species, such as P. interrogationis, overwinter as adults and may be seen flying in the early spring before any leaves are present on the trees.
Evolution and Systematics
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||619||Public Records:||337|
|Specimens with Sequences:||607||Public Species:||19|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||602||Public BINs:||9|
|Species With Barcodes:||20|
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Polygonia (from Greek πολύς - polys, "many" and γωνία - gōnia, "angle") is a genus of butterflies with a conspicuous white mark on the underside of each hindwing, hence the common name Comma. They also have conspicuous angular notches on the outer edges of their forewings, hence the other common name Anglewing butterflies. The related genus Nymphalis also includes some anglewing species; Polygonia is sometimes classified as a subgenus of Nymphalis.
- Polygonia c-album (Linnaeus, 1758) – Comma
- Polygonia c-aureum (Linnaeus, 1758) – Asian Comma
- Polygonia comma (Harris, 1842) – Eastern Comma
- Polygonia egea (Cramer, 1775) – Southern Comma
- Polygonia faunus (Edwards, 1862) – Faunus Anglewing, Faunus Comma, Green Comma
- Polygonia g-argenteum Doubleday & Hewitson, 1846 – Mexican Anglewing
- Polygonia gigantea (Leech, 1883) – Giant Comma
- Polygonia gracilis (Grote & Robinson, 1867) – Hoary Comma
- Polygonia haroldii Dewitz, 1877 – Spotless Anglewing
- Polygonia interposita (Staudinger, 1881)
- Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius, 1798) – Question Mark
- Polygonia oreas (Edwards, 1869) – Oreas Anglewing, Oreas Comma, Sylvan Anglewing
- Polygonia progne (Cramer, 1775) – Grey Comma, Gray Comma
- Polygonia satyrus (Edwards, 1869) – Satyr Anglewing, Satyr Comma
- Polygonia undina (Grum-Grshimailo, 1890)
- Polygonia zephyrus (Edwards, 1870) – Zephyr Comma
- πολύς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- γωνία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- Nymphalis. funet.fi
- Polygonia, Tree of Life
- Wahlberg, N. et al. (2009). Timing major conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes in species relationships of Polygonia butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini). BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:92.
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