Requiem sharks - the Carcharhinids - are distributed throughout temperate and tropical oceans with several species occurring worldwide. Habitats are oceanic beyond the continental shelf (oceanic whitetip sharks, Carcharhinus longimanus) and inland into freshwater rivers and lakes (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas). Some species tend to associate with bottom while others range throughout the water column. All carcharhinids are viviparous or ovoviviparous (Compagno, 1984).
Carcharhinid sharks are a valuable resource worldwide. They are utilized for their flesh, fins, oil, and skin, and are taken recreationally (Bonfil, 1994). Some species are known to travel long distances, occasionally crossing oceans, and are considered to be a resource shared between regions and nations.
Carcharhinidae genera can be difficult to identify due to similar body shape, color, and overlapping distributions; particularly Carcharhinus species and Rhizoprionodon species. There are a number of shark identification keys and field guides that are invaluable for carcharhinid identifications and those works are fundamental for providing a format for accurate identifications (Bigelow and Schroeder, 1948; Baughman and Springer, 1950; Springer, 1950; Casey, 1964; Clark and von Schmidt, 1965; Schwartz and Burgess, 1975; Hoese and Moore, 1977; Boschung, 1979; Garrick, 1982, 1985; Castro, 1983; Compagno, 1984; Gar man, 1997; McEachran and Fechhelm, 1998).
Members of Carcharhinidae are variously distinguished by the presence of precaudal pits; lack of spiracles (present on tiger sharks and occurring rarely on lemon sharks, Compagno, 1988); bladelike teeth with single cusps; first dorsal fin origin usually above pectoral fin or slightly posterior to pectoral fin inner corner (except on the blue shark with the dorsal fin base midpoint closer to pelvic fin origin than pectoral fin axil); second dorsal fin smaller than first dorsal fin and above anal fin (second dorsal fin and first dorsal fin almost equal size on lemon sharks); fifth gill slit over or posterior to pectoral fin origin; no fleshy keels along sides of caudal peduncle (except on tiger sharks and blue sharks); well developed nictitating membrane along eye socket lower margin.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:3287
Specimens with Barcodes:2138
Species With Barcodes:77
Requiem sharks, Carcharhinidae, are a family of sharks in the order Carcharhiniformes, containing migratory, live-bearing sharks of warm seas (sometimes of brackish or fresh water) such as the spinner shark, the blacknose shark, the blacktip shark, the blacktail reef shark, and the blacktip reef shark.
The name may be related to the French word for shark, requin, itself of disputed etymology (chien de mer or Latin requiem ("rest"), which would thereby create a cyclic etymology: requiem-requin-requiem).
Family members have the usual carcharhiniform characteristics. Their eyes are round, and the pectoral fins are completely behind the five gill slits. Most species are viviparous, the young being born fully developed. They vary widely in size, from as small as 69 cm (2.26 ft) adult length in the Australian sharpnose shark, up to 5.5 m (18 ft) adult length in the tiger shark.
The 60 species of requiem shark are grouped into 12 genera:
- Genus Galeocerdo J. P. Müller & Henle, 1837
- Genus Scoliodon J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838
- Genus Carcharhinus Blainville, 1816
- Carcharhinus acronotus Poey, 1860 (Blacknose shark)
- Carcharhinus albimarginatus Rüppell, 1837 (Silvertip shark)
- Carcharhinus altimus S. Springer, 1950 (Bignose shark)
- Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides Whitley, 1934 (Graceful shark)
- Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos Bleeker, 1856 (Grey reef shark)
- Carcharhinus amboinensis J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Pigeye shark)
- Carcharhinus borneensis Bleeker, 1858 (Borneo shark)
- Carcharhinus brachyurus Günther, 1870 (Copper shark)
- Carcharhinus brevipinna J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Spinner shark)
- Carcharhinus cautus Whitley, 1945 (Nervous shark)
- Carcharhinus cerdale C. H. Gilbert, 1898 (Pacific smalltail shark)
- Carcharhinus coatesi Whitley, 1939 (Coates's shark)
- Carcharhinus dussumieri J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Whitecheek shark)
- Carcharhinus falciformis J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Silky shark)
- Carcharhinus fitzroyensis Whitley, 1943 (Creek whaler)
- Carcharhinus galapagensis Snodgrass & Heller, 1905 (Galapagos shark)
- Carcharhinus hemiodon J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Pondicherry shark)
- Carcharhinus humani W. T. White & Weigmann, 2014 (Human's whaler shark)
- Carcharhinus isodon J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Finetooth shark)
- Carcharhinus leiodon Garrick, 1985 (Smoothtooth blacktip shark)
- Carcharhinus leucas J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Bull shark)
- Carcharhinus limbatus J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Blacktip shark)
- Carcharhinus longimanus Poey, 1861 (Oceanic whitetip shark)
- Carcharhinus macloti J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Hardnose shark)
- Carcharhinus melanopterus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Blacktip reef shark)
- Carcharhinus obscurus Lesueur, 1818 (Dusky shark)
- Carcharhinus perezi Poey, 1876 (Caribbean reef shark)
- Carcharhinus plumbeus Nardo, 1827 (Sandbar shark)
- Carcharhinus porosus Ranzani, 1839 (Smalltail shark)
- Carcharhinus sealei Pietschmann, 1913 (Blackspot shark)
- Carcharhinus signatus Poey, 1868 (Night shark)
- Carcharhinus sorrah J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839 (Spot-tail shark)
- Carcharhinus tilstoni Whitley, 1950 (Australian blacktip shark)
- Carcharhinus tjutjot Bleeker, 1852 (Indonesian whaler shark)
- Carcharhinus sp. A Not yet described (False smalltail shark)
- Genus Glyphis Agassiz, 1843
- Glyphis fowlerae Compagno, W. T. White & Cavanagh, 2010 (Borneo river shark)
- Glyphis gangeticus (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839) (Ganges shark)
- Glyphis garricki Compagno, W. T. White & Last, 2008 (Northern river shark)
- Glyphis glyphis (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839) (Speartooth shark)
- Glyphis siamensis (Steindachner, 1896) (Irrawaddy river shark)
- Glyphis sp. Not yet described (Mukah river shark)
- Genus Lamiopsis Gill, 1862
- Genus Nasolamia Compagno & Garrick, 1983
- Nasolamia velox (Gilbert, 1898) (Whitenose shark)
- Genus Negaprion Whitley, 1940
- Genus Prionace Cantor, 1849
- Genus Rhizoprionodon Whitley, 1929
- Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell, 1837) (Milk shark)
- Rhizoprionodon lalandii (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839) (Brazilian sharpnose shark)
- Rhizoprionodon longurio (D. S. Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) (Pacific sharpnose shark)
- Rhizoprionodon oligolinx V. G. Springer, 1964 (Grey sharpnose shark)
- Rhizoprionodon porosus (Poey, 1861) (Caribbean sharpnose shark)
- Rhizoprionodon taylori (Ogilby, 1915) (Australian sharpnose shark)
- Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (J. Richardson, 1836) (Atlantic sharpnose shark)
- Genus Loxodon J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838
- Loxodon macrorhinus (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839) (Sliteye shark)
- Genus Isogomphodon Gill, 1862
- Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839) (Daggernose shark)
- Genus Triaenodon J. P. Müller & Henle, 1837
- Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell, 1837) (Whitetip reef shark)
† = extinct
- Guillaume Guinot, Henri Cappetta and Sylvain Adnet (2014). "A rare elasmobranch assemblage from the Valanginian (Lower Cretaceous) of southern France". Cretaceous Research 48: 54–84. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2013.11.014.
- "Requiem Shark" by Erik Tierney (accessed 28 November 2007).
- Compagno, L.J.V. Family Carcharhinidae - Requiem sharks in Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2010. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication, version (10/2013).
- ISAF Statistics on Attacking Species of Shark[dead link]
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