Overview

Comprehensive Description

Stamnaria persoonii (Moug. Ex Pers.: Fr.) Fuckel

Stamnaria persoonii (Moug. Ex Pers.: Fr.) Fuckel

Characterisation of species, lacking some information like microscopic features, which are provided in the following diagnostic description, please ask in case of questions.

Stamnaria persoonii is a fungus of Ascomycetes, regarded to belong to Helotiales or Leotiales. Its bright yellow-orange to orange (hydrated), or darker (somewhat brownish) orange (exsiccated), generative fruitbodies are urceolate, meaning shaped like a jar. This habit is result of the discus-shaped so called apothecium, being crowned by a distinct, comparatively long and sometimes constricted above collarette, built of hyaline part of outer excipulum (outer parts), and is much characteristic for S. persoonii, the type of the genus.

The size may reach 0.9 - 1.2 mm across fruitbodies, in height inclusive collar to 0.8 or rarely 0.9 mm without stipe, the collar grows to height of 0.2 - 0.32 mm. For usual there is a distinct slender stipe, quite variable in length, in rare cases up to about 2 mm (depending on situation of fruitbody).

Features of asci (sporangia) and spores within are most important for separation of similar, regularly mixed up species (ineditioned!), still are left besides at time and are added in the following diagnostic description.

True S. persoonii was proved by me to grow primarily on last years decaying remainings of Equisetum fluviatile, Water Horsetail, and will mature from June to August. I saw myself only 3 samples of E. arvense bearing this species, in most cases this host will prove to feed the much more common S. "mougeotii" Gruber ined.! (2006: 54), being regularly mixed up with. There are some reports of S. persoonii growing on other horsetails, still i could not prove this true till now, E. palustre was free of this fungus in sites it was on E. fluviatile. In addition, hosts of S. spp. proved to have been rather regularly misidentified!

The ascocarps (fb.) do apper singular, somewhat closer together on some parts of host, but are not clustered, and won't erupt parts of epiderm as in S. americana, the tips of asci (sporangia) contain an amyloid =J+ structure, being stained blue by jodine. As told above, this sp. is rather rare and nearby in any case growing on E. fluviatile, thus most reports of S. will refer to other spp.

Vegetative, mitotic spores (conidia) producing structures = anamorph, will appear from late summer on living, later dying off horsetails, bearing typical conidia termed Titaeospora equiseti (not separated between S. spp.), which won't be spread by wind, since being glued and connected by secondary anastomoses. The sexual fb. will build at loci of anamorphs in warm season of the next year as i did object.

Distribution as known to me:

Middle to W Europe: Austria; Belgium? - locations of types are missing; Czech Republik - solely anamorph on E. fluviatile; Denmark - solely anamorph on E. fluviatile; France; Germany; Great Britain (Dennis 1956, 1978); Netherlands; Switzerland.
Greenland, Island Disko - on E. arvense.
North America: Canada, Ontario, London - solely Titaeospora equiseti on E. fluviatile.
Stamnaria persoonii is much likelyly native to some parts of North America, but no ascocarps are proved true, solely the asexual stage from Ontario, Canada.
I may assume the species to be distributed in a much greater area than hitherto known.

There was much taxonomic confusion about S. persoonii, resulting in a long list of applied synonyms, caused partially by confusion of different species. S. equiseti was proved by Hoffman's delineation (1790: Veg. crypt. II: 17, tab. 5, fig. 1) to be synonym to S. persoonii, and would be prior to other names, but is less known to mycologists, thus i suggest conservation of the binomen applied here.

Be aware, this is just a short excerpt of my scientific results, which shall be published in some time, thus it makes no sense to tell all results. You may cite given information, but please do contact me before, and don't forget to cite the source, anyone may ask me for futher information.

gruberwin0529@gmail.com

  • Dennis, R.W.G. (1956): A revision of the British Helotiaceae in the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, with notes on related European species. - Mycol. Pap. 62: 1-216.
  • Dennis, R.W.G. (1978): British Ascomycetes. Revised and enlarged edition. - Vaduz: J. Cramer.
  • Gruber, E. (2006): Studien über die equiseticole Gattung Stamnaria Fuckel, (Ascomycota, Helotiales, Helotiaceae), einschließlich ökologischer Beobachtungen in der Steiermark, Österreich. 71 pp., Diplomarbeit durchgeführt am Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften der Karl-Franzens-Universität (Graz), April 2006, ined.!
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic microscopical characters

Additional microscopic characters ex Gruber (2006: 15-17), obtained features were taken from dead (exsiccated) samples, be aware that living material does deviate in some respects and show regularly bigger elements, most likely due to loss of turgor in vacuoles in dead structures (look for articles of H.O. Baral, not cited at time).

Excipulum composed of two layers, the outer one hyaline, comparatively thick and tough, as typical for the genus built of hyphae with readily swelling, thus quite thick walls (textura oblita), being obviousely functionally important (dry / wet condition), conspicuously excelling the hymenium and forming some collar, giving the fruitbodies' characteristic shapes of deep cups to suborbicular jars when constricted above. Inner exciple and other structures depart of hymenium were of lesser diagnostic value in my studies, and are thus here omitted.

Paraphyses abundand, 1.5-2 µ across, remotely septate, for usual singular ramified near their basis (rarer multiple), no anastomoses mentioned in Gruber (2006), and i might not remember if there had been some, filled with many yellow-orange guttulae of variable size, which may sometimes fill the lumen across. When paraphyses die, these guttules seem to fuse, formig bigger, partially irregularly shaped units (compare Künkele & al 2005: 8). Upper ends at level of ascus-tips or slightly above (fully mature, living asci will excel them), not thickened or slightly to
3 [4] µ (dead!).

Asci are slender cylindric (to slightest clavate), bearing 8 strictly uniserially arranged spores, with much variable dimensions of: [100]120-180(210) : [8]10-14(16) µ, the length of basal sporeless part does differ correspondingly [probably immature], (less frequent).

The apical structure of asci is stained blue by JJK-solution without pretreatment, being termed (eu-) amyloid = J+. In rather mature (dead) asci the stained area does show two small blue dots close together in optic longitudinal section, and a small ring viewed from above. When mature, the ascus-wall is not, or hardly noticeably thickened at apex, in contradiction to immature asci, whose stained part of apical structure shows two short stripes near together.

Ascospores broadly ellipsoidic, hyalin, aseptate, apolar, in dead condition with few, big, noncoloured (oil?-) globules, which partially fill nearby the lumen across, this feature should be deviating from living spores, in general guttules seem to fuse in dying cells and afterwards in this genus.

Variation of spore-dimensions: [probably immature or exceeding] (less frequent),
from 7 specimen ex hebaria – [10]12-18(20) : [5]6-8[10] µ

Average spore-dimensions: (7 specimen) – 14.3 : 7.3 µ = Q.: 2.0
[statistical equivalence of specimen: 14.2 : 7.2 µ = Q.: 2.0 ]

Variation of average dimensions: 12.9 – 14.7 (15.9) : 7.0 – 7.4 (7.7) µ

Variation of quotients of length to width: Q.: 1.8 – 2.1

You may cite the given information, but please do contact me before, and don't forget to cite the source, anyone may ask me for further information.

gruberwin0529@gmail.com

  • Gruber, E. (2006): Studien über die equiseticole Gattung Stamnaria Fuckel, (Ascomycota, Helotiales, Helotiaceae), einschließlich ökologischer Beobachtungen in der Steiermark, Österreich. 71 pp., Diplomarbeit durchgeführt am Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften der Karl-Franzens-Universität (Graz), April 2006, ined.!
  • Künkele U., Lohmeier T.R. & Baral H.-O. (2005): Stamnaria americana, ein in Auwäldern vermutlich häufiger, aber aus Deutschland bisher nicht berichteter Parasit an Equisetum hyemale. - Mycol. Bav. 7: 3-20.
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
sometimes in rows acervulus of Titaeospora coelomycetous anamorph of Titaeospora equiseti is saprobic on dying, locally reddish-brown stained stem of Equisetum fluviatile
Remarks: season: 3-4

Foodplant / saprobe
sometimes in rows acervulus of Titaeospora coelomycetous anamorph of Titaeospora equiseti is saprobic on dying, locally reddish-brown stained stem of Equisetum arvense
Remarks: season: 3-4

Foodplant / saprobe
sometimes in rows acervulus of Titaeospora coelomycetous anamorph of Titaeospora equiseti is saprobic on dying, locally reddish-brown stained stem of Equisetum hyemale
Remarks: season: 3-4

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Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Stamnaria persoonii is saprobic on stem of Equisetum palustre
Remarks: season: 5-6

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