Although the Summer Truffle (Tuber aestivum) and Burgundy Truffle (T. uncinatum) have often been treated as distinct species, based on morphological and genetic analyses Wedén et al. (2005) concluded that these names both refer to the same species, with the name T. aestivum having priority. Previously, with more limited geographic sampling, Mello et al. (2002) and Paolocci et al. (2004) came to divergent conclusions based on their genetic analyses, with Mello et al. concluding that these are distinct taxa and Paolocci et al. concluding that they are not. Earlier allozyme studies (Urbanelli et al. 1998) also found no evidence for two distinct taxa. Paolocci et al. speculated that specific (not yet identified) soil and climatic conditions may induce T. aestivum to fruit under different conditions, which, in turn, could affect the flavor and aroma of the truffle and the morphology of ascocarps, thereby giving rise to the T. aestivum and T. uncinatum morphotypes--although single truffle-grounds (even single host plants) can reportedly produce both morphotypes.
The Summer Truffle is considered to be the commonest European truffle, occurring throughout Europe (between 37° and 57° N) and in North Africa (Jeandroz et al. 2008), although in some countries it is considered to be crtically endangered based on current limited knowledge of its occurrence. With its broad habitat and climate requirements, the Summer Truffle is probably the easiest truffle to cultivate commercially and its commercial importance is growing. (Benucci et al. 2011; Gryndler et al. 2011)
- Benucci, G.M.N.,L. Raggi, E. Albertini, et al. 2011. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a productive Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard: composition, host influence and species replacement. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 76(1): 170-184.
- Gryndler, M., H. Hršelová, L. Soukupová, E. Streiblová, S. Valda, J. Borovička, H. Gryndlerová, J. Gažo, and M. Miko. 2011. Detection of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) in ectomycorrhizae and in soil using specific primers. FEMS Microbiollogy Letters 318: 84-91.
- Jeandroz, S., C. Murat, Y. Wang, P. Bonfante, and F. Le Tacon. 2008. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the genus Tuber, the ‘true truffles’. Journal of Biogeography 35: 815-829.
- Mello, A., A. Cantisani, A. Vizzini, and P. Bonfante. 2002. Genetic variability of Tuber uncinatum and its relatedness to other black truffles. Environmental Microbiology 4(10): 584-594.
- Paolocci, F., A. Rubini, C. Riccioni, F. Topini, and S. Arcioni. 2004. Tuber aestivum and Tuber uncinatum: two morphotypes or two species? FEMS Microbiology Letters 235: 109-115.
- Urbanelli, S., P. Sallicandro, E. De Vito, L. Bullini, and E. Biocca. 1998. Biochemical Systematics of Some Species in the Genus Tuber. Mycologia 90(3): 537-546.
- Wedén, C., E. Danell, and L. Tibell. 2005. Species recognition in the truffle genus Tuber– the synonyms Tuber aestivum and Tuber uncinatum. Environmental Microbiology 7(10): 1535-1546.
|hymenium attachment is not applicable|
|lacks a stipe|
spore print is blackish-brownto brown
|ecology is mycorrhizal|
In cuisine and commerce, particularly in France and Italy, the summer truffle (T. aestivum) is distinguished from the burgundy truffle (T. uncinatum). However, molecular analysis showed in 2004 that these two varieties of truffle are one species. The differences between them are therefore likely due to environmental factors.
Burgundy truffles (French: truffe de Bourgogne; Italian: tartufo nero di Fragno or scorzone, "bark"; Spanish: trufa de verano; Swedish: svart sommartryffel), have an intense, hazelnut-like aroma and are highly prized for their gastronomic qualities. They are used in the haute cuisine of France and Italy, as well as a substitute for the Périgord black truffle (T. melanosporum). Like other truffles, they are also canned and bottled for export.
With bodies (ascocarps) from 2 centimetres (1 in) to 10 centimetres (4 in) in diameter, burgundy truffles are relatively large. Their brown or black outer skin (peridium) forms pyramidal warts about 3 to 9 mm wide, resembling rough bark.
Burgundy truffles are harvested from September to late December, sometimes also until late January. They have a wider distribution than any other truffle species. Burgundy truffles are found across Europe, from Spain to eastern Europe and from Sweden to North Africa. In France they are found mainly in the north-east and in Italy, in the north. In the United Kingdom they were plentiful prior to the 20th century, but are now rare. Their distribution may not yet be definitively established: there are as of 2007 unconfirmed reports of findings in China.
As their name suggests, summer truffles are harvested earlier than burgundy truffles, from May to August. They are most often found in the southern part of the distribution area of the species, notably in the Mediterranean climate areas of France, Italy and Spain.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tuber aestivum.|
- Hall, Ian R.; Gordon Thomas Brown; Alessandra Zambonelli (2007). "Burgundy or Summer Truffle". Taming the truffle: the history, lore, and science of the ultimate mushroom. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-860-0.
- Paolocci, Francesco; Andrea Rubini; Claudia Riccioni; Fabiana Topini; Sergio Arcioni (June 2004). "Tuber aestivum and Tuber uncinatum: two morphotypes or two species?". FEMS Microbiology Letters 235 (1): 109–115. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2004.tb09574.x. PMID 15158269. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- Gryndler, Milan; Hana Hršelová, Lucie Soukupová, Eva Streiblová, Slavomír Valda, Jan Borovička, Hana Gryndlerová, Ján Gažo and Marián Miko (May 2011). "Detection of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) in ectomycorrhizae and in soil using specific primers". FEMS Microbiology Letters 318 (1): 84–91. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02243.x. PMID 22684239. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
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