Overview

Brief Summary

The soil-borne ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum is a pathogenic fungus common in soils around the world, and the cause of fusarium wilt, a deadly vascular wilting syndrome in plants.  Fusarium oxysporum comprises over 120 known strains or “special forms” (formae speciales; f. sp.), each of which is specific to a unique plant host in which it causes disease.  Collectively, these F. oxysporum strains infect and kill a large host range including many commercially harvested crops such as species in the Solenaceae family (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, eggplant), watermelon, lettuce, legumes, beets, basil, strawberries, chrysanthemum, sugarcane, bananas, and multiple other species.  Fusarium oxysporum spores survive dormant in soil sometimes for 30 years, are easily spread in water, on machinery and seeds, and can hide in the rhizomes or vegetative cuttings of infected plants, showing no symptoms until transmitted to other individuals; all these are qualities that make this fungus an important and potentially devastating agricultural pest (Gonsalves and Ferreira 1993; Miller et al. 1996; New York Botanical Garden 2003; Wikipedia 2014a,b).

Of particular urgent threat currently is the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense; the special form specific to bananas, which causes Panama disease deadly to banana plants.  Cavendash bananas, the strain which compose 85% of world banana exports, are generally F. oxysporum-resistant, however fall susceptible to a new variant of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, termed Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4).  FocTR4 was first identified in Asia in 1992, infecting the Philippines and Northern Australia shortly thereafter.  In 2013 Jordan and Mozambique reported TR4 infected crops creating intense concern for its inevitable spread into banana producing countries in Africa and South America.  Hygiene to reduce the spread of the fungus and transgenic techniques to introduce resistance genes into Cavendash bananas are tools researchers hope will save the industry (Butler 2013; IITA Press Release 2013; Plant Health Australia 2013; García-Bastidas et al. 2014; Wikipedia 2014c).

Fusarium oxysporum attacks its host by entering through the root.  It grows in the plant xylem, eventually blocking the vascular system.  This prevents transport of water and nutrients to the rest of the host, causing wilting, discoloration, and ultimately death of the plant (Gonsalves and Ferreira, 1993; Wikipedia 2014a).

In addition to having well-studied pathogenic activity in plants, the broad host range of Fusarium oxysporum extends outside plant kingdom, into Animalia.  It is an emerging opportunistic human pathogen, reported as one of the most common agents causing invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients; as F. oxysporum is resistant to most available antifungal drugs, these infections are serious and frequently fatal in mammals.  Scientists have proposed developing F. oxysporum as a universal model for understanding fungal virulence (Ortoneda et al. 2003). 

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Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. as emended by Snyder and Hansen [1] comprises all the species, varieties and forms recognized by Wollenweber and Reinking [2] within an infrageneric grouping called section Elegans. While the species, as defined by Snyder and Hansen, has been widely accepted for more than 50 years [3][4], more recent work indicates this taxon is actually a genetically heterogeneous polytypic morphospecies [5][6] whose strains represent some of the most abundant and widespread microbes of the global soil microflora [7], although this last statement has not been proven or supported by actual data. These remarkably diverse and adaptable fungi have been found in soils ranging from the Sonoran Desert, to tropical and temperate forests, grasslands and soils of the tundra [8]. F. oxysporum strains are ubiquitous soil inhabitants that have the ability to exist as saprophytes, and degrade lignin [9][10] and complex carbohydrates [11][12][13] associated with soil debris. They are also pervasive plant endophytes that can colonize plant roots [14][15] and may even protect plants or be the basis of disease suppression [16][17.] Although the predominant role of these fungi in native soils may be as harmless or even beneficial plant endophytes or soil saprophytes, many strains within the F. oxysporum complex are pathogenic to plants, especially in agricultural settings.

Pathogenic strains of F. oxysporum have been studied for more than 100 years. The host range of these fungi is extremely broad, and includes animals, ranging from arthropods [18] to humans [19], as well as plants, including a range of both gymnosperms and angiosperms. While collectively, plant pathogenic F. oxysporum strains have a broad host range, individual isolates usually cause disease only on a narrow range of plant species. This observation has led to the idea of "special form" or forma speciales in F. oxysporum. Formae speciales have been defined as "...an informal rank in Classification.....used for parasitic fungi characterized from a physiological standpoint (e.g. by the ability to cause disease in particular hosts) but scarcely or not at all from a morphological standpoint. As a category, forma specialis is mentioned in, but not regulated by, the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and sometimes it has been inconsistently applied. Exhaustive host range studies also have been conducted for relatively few formae speciales or F. oxysporum [20]. For more information on Fusarium oxysporum as a plant pathogen, see Fusarium wilt. Different strains of F. oxysporum have been used in the purpose of producing nanomaterials (especially Silver nanoparticles).

  • [1] Snyder, W.C. and Hansen, H.N. 1940. The species concept in Fusarium. Amer. J. Bot. 27:64-67.
  • [2] Wollenweber, H.W. and Reinking, O.A. 1935. Die Fusarien, ihre Beschreibung, Schadwirkung und Bekampfung. P. Parey, Berlin. 365 pp.
  • [3] Booth, C. 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK, 237 pp.
  • [4] Nelson, P.E., Toussoun, T.A. and Marasas, W.F.O. 1983. Fusarium species: An illustrated manual for identification. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.
  • [5] O'Donnell, K. and Cigelnik, E. 1997. Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 7:103-116.
  • [6] Waalwijk, C., De Koning, J.R.A., Baayen, R.P. and Gams, W. 1996. Discordant groupings of Fusarium spp. from section Elegans, Liseola and Dlaminia based on ribosomal ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Mycologia 88:361-368.
  • [7] Gordon, T.R. and Martyn, R.D. 1997. The evolutionary biology of Fusarium oxysporum. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 35:111-128.
  • [8] Stoner, M.F. 1981. Ecology of Fusarium in noncultivated soils. Pages 276-286 in: Fusarium: Diseases, Biology, and Taxonomy. P.E. Nelson, T.A. Toussoun and R.J. Cook, eds. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.
  • [9] Rodriguez, A., Perestelo, F., Carnicero, A., Regalado, V., Perez, R., De la Fuente, G. and Falcon, M.A.1996. Degradation of natural lignins and lignocellulosic substrates by soil-inhabiting fungi imperfecti. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 21:213-219.
  • [10] Sutherland, J.B., Pometto, A.L. III and Crawford, D.L. 1983. Lignocellulose degradation by Fusarium species. Can. J. Bot. 61:1194-1198.
  • [11] Christakopoulos, P., Kekos, D., Macris, B.J., Claeyssens, M. and Bhat, M.K. 1995. Purification and mode of action of a low molecular mass endo-1,4-B-D-glucanase from Fusarium oxysporum. J. Biotechnol. 39:85-93.
  • [12] Christakopoulos, P., Nerinckx, W., Kekos, D., Macris, B. and Claeyssens, M. 1996. Purification and characterization of two low molecular mass alkaline xylanases from Fusarium oxysporum F3. J. Biotechnol. 51:181-180.
  • [13] Snyder, W.C. and Hansen, H.N. 1940. The species concept in Fusarium. Amer. J. Bot. 27:64-67.
  • [14] Gordon, T.R., Okamoto, D. and Jacobson, D.J. 1989. Colonization of muskmelon and nonsusceptible crops by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and other species of Fusarium. Phytopathology 79:1095-1100.
  • [15] Katan, J. 1971. Symptomless carriers of the tomato Fusarium wilt pathogen. Phytopathology 61:1213-1217.
  • [16] Larkin, R.P., Hopkins, D.L. and Martin, F.N. 1993. Effect of successive watermelon plantings on Fusarium oxysporum and other microorganisms in soils suppressive and conducive to fusarium wilt of watermelon. Phytopathology 83:1097-1105.
  • [17] Lemanceau, P., Bakker, P.A.H.M., DeKogel, W.J., Alabouvette, C. and Schippers, B. 1993. Antagonistic effect of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and pseudobactin 358 upon pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:74-82.
  • [18] Teetor-Barsch, G.H. and Roberts, D.W. 1983. Entomogenous Fusarium species. Mycopathologia 84:3-16.
  • [19 Nelson, P.E., Dignani, M.C. and Anaissie, E.J. 1994. Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:479-504.
  • [20] Kistler, H.C. 2001. Evolution of host specificity in Fusarium oxysporum. Pages 70-82 in: Fusarium: Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium. B.A. Summerell, J.F. Leslie, D. Backhouse, W.L. Bryden and L.W. Burgess, eds. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
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Comprehensive Description

General Description

 On Potato Sucrose Agar (PSA). Colonies. After 4 days growth of isolates ranges from 4.5-6.35 cm diam. with a mean ñ SD = 4.09 ñ 0.52; mycelium delicate white with purplish pink or grayish magenta or white with a purple pigmentation. On Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Colonies. After 10 days growth on slants ranges from 7-8.25 cm length with a mean ñ SD = 7.05 ñ 0.43; mycelium sparse or abundant ranging in colour from white to pale violet or violet white; small pale brown, blue or violet sclerotia sometimes produced abundantly; mycelium producing terminal or intercalary, smooth or rough walled "chlamydospores" abundantly and quickly, usually singly, in pairs, in clusters or in short chains. Conidia. Of two types; macroconidia sparse in some strains, but usually abundant in sporodochia, straight to slightly curved, thin walled, 27-60 × 3-5 μm, usually 3- to 5-septate, 3-septate being most common, each with a tapering and curved apical cell and foot shaped basal cell; microconidia abundant, oval, elliptical, straight to curved, usually 0-septate, 5-12 × 2-3.5 μ, produced in false heads on short monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Teleomorph. Not known. Notes. This species usually produces pale violet (Potato Dextrose Agar) or magenta (Potato Dextrose Agar) pigmentation; it grows on Glycerol Nitrate Agar (G25N) with white or pale yellow aerial mycelium and yellow pigmentation; growth on mannitol sucrose medium results in white or reddish white or red aerial mycelium and red or brownish red or grayish red pigmentation; growth on Czapek-Dox Iprodione Dichloran Agar (CZID) results in white or pinkish white or pink aerial mycelium and brownish grey or purplish grey pigmentation. The species produces urease and phosphatase enzymes, but does not produce acid on creatine sucrose agar and acetylmethylcarbinol compound. Different isolates vary in production of peroxidase and pyrocatechol oxidase enzymes. 
  •  Nafady, N.A. 2008. Ecological, physiological and taxonomical studies on the genus Fusarium in Egypt. MSc thesis, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt. 
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Distribution

 Argentina; Armenia; Australia (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia); Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belarus; Brazil (Distrito Federal, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo); Brunei; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Canada (Alberta, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan); Chile; China (Hong Kong); Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Cyprus; Denmark; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Ethiopia; former USSR; France; Georgia; Greece; Guyana; Honduras; India (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mysore, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh); Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan (Kustanai oblast); Kenya; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mexico; Moldova; Namibia; New Zealand; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Russia (Altaiskyi krai, Irkutskaya oblast, Kaluga oblast, Kamchatskaya oblast, Krasnodarskyi krai, Leningradskaya oblast, Moscow oblast, Nizhegorodskaya oblast, Primorskyi krai, Sakhalinskaya oblast, Saratovskaya oblast, Stavropol’skyi krai); Singapore; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; St Lucia; Sudan; Switzerland; Taiwan; Tanzania; Thailand; Trinidad & Tobago; Uganda; UK; Ukraine; Uruguay; USA (Alabama, California, Florida, Hawaii, Maryland, Texas); Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe. 
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
embedded, apothecium-bearing sclerotium of Fusarium oxysporum infects and damages stem of Gladiolus x hortulanus

Foodplant / pathogen
Fusarium oxysporum infects and damages stem of Matthiola incana

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Associated Organisms

 Abelmoschus esculentus; Acacia luderitzii; Acacia nebrownii; Acroptilion repens; Agapanthus africanus; Albizia sp.; Albizia julibrissin; Alliaria petiolata; Allium cepa; Allium sativum; Amaranthus sp.; Ananas comosus; Anemone sp.; Arabidopsis thaliana; Arachis hypogaea; Asparagus officinalis; Avena sp.; Avena sativa; Azadirachta indica; Azalea sp.; Bambusa nutans; Beta vulgaris; Bougainvillea sp.; Brassica sp.; Brassica carinata; Brassica juncea; Brassica napus; Brassica napus var. oleifera; Brassica nigra; Brassica oleracea; Brassica oleracea var. capitata; Brassica oleracea var. gongyloides; Brassica rapa; Cajanus cajan; Callistephus sp.; Callistephus chinensis; Capsicum sp.; Capsicum annuum; Capsicum frutescens; Carthamus tinctorius; Centrosema acutifolium; Chrysanthemum sp.; Cicer arietinum; Citrullus lanatus; Citrus sp.; Clematis sp.; Clitoria ternatea; Cocos nucifera; Coffea sp.; Coffea arabica; Coffea canephora; Coffea excelsa; Coffea stenophylla; Colias polyographus; Colocasia Schott.; Colophospermum mopane; Craspedia sp.; Crossandra sp.; Cucumis melo; Cucumis sativus; Cucurbita maxima; Cuminum cyminum; Curcuma longa; Cynara scolymus; Cyperus rotundus; Dahlia sp.; Dianthus sp.; Dianthus caryophyllus; Dioscorea sp.; Dioscorea rotundata; Dracaena sp.; Elaeis guineensis; Elettaria cardamomum; Eucalyptus sp.; Eucalyptus globulus; Eucalyptus gomphocephala; Eucalyptus grandis; Eucalyptus maculata; Eucalyptus pauciflora; Eucalyptus tereticornis; Festuca ciliata; Fragaria sp.; Fragaria ananassa; Fusarium flocciferum; Gerbera sp.; Gibberella avenacea; Gibberella intricans; Gladiolus sp.; Gladiolus hybridus C. Morr.; Gliocladium roseum; Gliocladium viride; Gossypium sp.; Gossypium hirsutum; Gramineae sp.; Gypsophila sp.; Hedychium coronarium; Heliothis helicoverpa; Heterodera rostochiensis; Hibiscus rosaesinensis; Homo sapiens; Hordeum sp.; Hymenoptera sp.; Hypothenemus hampei; Ilex aquifolium; Ipomoea batatas; Iris sp.; Lathyrus sativus; Lavandula angustifolia; Leguminosae sp.; Liliaceae sp.; Lotus corniculatus; Lupinus sp.; Lycopersicon sp.; Lycopersicon esculentum; Lymantria dispar; Magnoliopsida sp.; Malus pumila; Medicago sativa; Momordica charantia; Morus alba; Murraya koenigii; Musa sp.; Musa acuminata; Musa paradisiaca; Musa paradisiaca subsp. sapientum; Myrothecium verrucaria; Narcissus sp.; Nectria haematococca; Nematoda sp.; Nesiota elliptica; Nigella sativa; not identified; Ocimum basilicum; Orobanche sp.; Orobanche alsatica; Orobanche crenata; Orontium sp.; Oryza sp.; Oryza sativa; Panax ginseng; Panicum sp.; Passiflora edulis; Pelargonium graveolens; Phaseolus vulgaris; Phoenix sp.; Phoenix dactylifera; Phytolacca dioica; Pinus sp.; Pinus banksiana; Pinus caribaea; Pinus elliottii; Pinus halepensis; Pinus kesiya; Pinus lambertiana; Pinus nigra; Pinus oocarpa; Pinus patula; Pinus pinaster; Pinus pinea; Pinus radiata; Pinus resinosa; Pinus strobus; Pinus sylvestris; Piper nigrum; Pisum sativum; Plantae sp.; Plutella xylostella; Poncirus trifoliata; Populus sp.; Prunus amygdalus; Prunus armeniaca; Prunus avium; Prunus persica; Psidium guajava; Pterocarpus indicus; Pyrus sp.; Pyrus communis; Raphanus sativus; Ricinus communis; Rosa sp.; Saccharum officinarum; Schlumbergera sp.; Secale sp.; Secale cereale; Simmondsia chinensis; Sinapis alba; Solanum melongena; Solanum tuberosum; Spinacia oleracea; Striga hermontheca; Syngonium sp.; Taxus cuspidata; Theobroma cacao; Thlaspi arvense; Trifolium repens; Triticum sp.; Triticum aestivum; Triticum durum; Tulipa sp.; Vanilla sp.; Vicia faba; Vigna aconitifolia; Vigna cajanga; Vigna unguiculata; Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis; Vitis vinifera; Voandzeia subterranea; Washingtonia filifera; Xanthosoma sp.; Xanthosoma sagittifolium; Zantedeschia aethiopica; Zea mays; Zingiber officinale; Zinnia sp. 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Fusarium oxysporum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

TATTTAATATTCGCTCTTTTCTCTGGATTATTAGGTACAGCTTTTTCAGTGTTAATTAGACTTGAACTTAGTGGGCCAGGAGTTCAATATATTTCTAATAA---TCAATTATATAACAGTGTAATTACAGCTCACGCTATATTAATGATATTCTTCATG---GTTATGCCAGCATTAATAGGTGGGTTTGGAAATTTTTTAATGCCTTTAATGGTAGGTGGTCCGGATATGGCATTCCCTAGATTAAATAATATAAGTTTCTGATTATTACCTCCTAGTTTAATATTATTGGTATTTTCAGCCATAATTGAAGGTGGAGTGGGTACAGGT------------TGAACACTTTATCCCCCATTATCAGGATTACAAAGTCATAGTGGACCTAGTGTAGATCTTGCTATTTTTACTTTACATTTAACAGGGGTAAGTAGTTTATTAGGATCGATAAATTTTATAACAACAATTGTAAATATGAGAACGCCAGGAATAAGATTACATAAATTAGCATTATTCGGATGAGCAGTAGTTATAACAGCAGTATTACTTTTATTATCATTACCTGTATTAGCTGGTGGTATAACTATGGTGTTAACAGATAGAAATTTTAATACATCATTCTTTGAAGTAGCAGGTGGAGGAGATCCTATATTATTCCAACATCTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Fusarium oxysporum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Fusarium oxysporum

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. as emended by Snyder and Hansen[1] comprises all the species, varieties and forms recognized by Wollenweber and Reinking[2] within an infrageneric grouping called section Elegans. While the species, as defined by Snyder and Hansen, has been widely accepted for more than 50 years,[3][4] more recent work indicates this taxon is actually a genetically heterogeneous polytypic morphospecies[5][6] whose strains represent some of the most abundant and widespread microbes of the global soil microflora,[7] although this last statement has not been proven or supported by actual data. These remarkably diverse and adaptable fungi have been found in soils ranging from the Sonoran Desert, to tropical and temperate forests, grasslands and soils of the tundra.[8] F. oxysporum strains are ubiquitous soil inhabitants that have the ability to exist as saprophytes, and degrade lignin[9][10] and complex carbohydrates[11][12][13] associated with soil debris. They are also pervasive plant endophytes that can colonize plant roots[14][15] and may even protect plants or be the basis of disease suppression.[16][17] Although the predominant role of these fungi in native soils may be as harmless or even beneficial plant endophytes or soil saprophytes, many strains within the F. oxysporum complex are pathogenic to plants, especially in agricultural settings.

Pathogenic strains of F. oxysporum have been studied for more than 100 years. The host range of these fungi is extremely broad, and includes animals, ranging from arthropods[18] to humans,[19] as well as plants, including a range of both gymnosperms and angiosperms. While collectively, plant pathogenic F. oxysporum strains have a broad host range, individual isolates usually cause disease only on a narrow range of plant species. This observation has led to the idea of "special form" or forma specialis in F. oxysporum. Formae speciales have been defined as "...an informal rank in Classification.....used for parasitic fungi characterized from a physiological standpoint (e.g. by the ability to cause disease in particular hosts) but scarcely or not at all from a morphological standpoint." Exhaustive host range studies have been conducted for relatively few formae speciales of F. oxysporum.[20] For more information on Fusarium oxysporum as a plant pathogen, see Fusarium wilt.

Different strains of F. oxysporum have been used in the purpose of producing nanomaterials (especially Silver nanoparticles).

Formae speciales (special forms)[edit]

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli

Patents relating to the management of Fusarium oxysporum[edit]

A number of recent patents specifically describe effective treatments of Fusarium oxysporum, reflecting its widespread importance as an agricultural pest.

  • US 5,614,188: two strains of Bacillus in a composition of chitin and lime used to fight Fusarium in the soil.
  • US 2004/136964 A1: Trichoderma asperellum mixed into container media (such as peat).
  • US 4,714,614: a strain of Pseudomonas putida in combination with an iron chelating agent (such as EDTA).
  • US 4988586: any of six types of bacteria that degrade fusaric acid, a toxin that damages plants and furthers infection.
  • US 6100449 and WO 1996/032007 A1: a small genomic region (I2C) conferring resistance in transgenic tomatoes.
  • US 2003/131376 A1: use of transgenic plants expressing enzymes capable of destroying Fusarium cell walls.
  • US 4006265: spraying of crops with hydrogen peroxide to reduce the effect of contamination by Fusarium toxins.
  • WO 2005/074687 A1: cure of infected plants by spraying with natamycin or other polyene antibiotics.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Snyder, W.C. and Hansen, H.N. 1940. The species concept in Fusarium. Amer. J. Bot. 27:64-67.
  2. ^ Wollenweber, H.W. and Reinking, O.A. 1935. Die Fusarien, ihre Beschreibung, Schadwirkung und Bekampfung. P. Parey, Berlin. 365 pp.
  3. ^ Booth, C. 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK, 237 pp.
  4. ^ Nelson, P.E., Toussoun, T.A. and Marasas, W.F.O. 1983. Fusarium species: An illustrated manual for identification. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.
  5. ^ O'Donnell, K. and Cigelnik, E. 1997. Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 7:103-116.
  6. ^ Waalwijk, C., De Koning, J.R.A., Baayen, R.P. and Gams, W. 1996. Discordant groupings of Fusarium spp. from section Elegans, Liseola and Dlaminia based on ribosomal ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Mycologia 88:361-368.
  7. ^ Gordon, T.R. and Martyn, R.D. 1997. The evolutionary biology of Fusarium oxysporum. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 35:111-128.
  8. ^ Stoner, M.F. 1981. Ecology of Fusarium in noncultivated soils. Pages 276-286 in: Fusarium: Diseases, Biology, and Taxonomy. P.E. Nelson, T.A. Toussoun and R.J. Cook, eds. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.
  9. ^ Rodriguez, A., Perestelo, F., Carnicero, A., Regalado, V., Perez, R., De la Fuente, G. and Falcon, M.A.1996. Degradation of natural lignins and lignocellulosic substrates by soil-inhabiting fungi imperfecti. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 21:213-219.
  10. ^ Sutherland, J.B., Pometto, A.L. III and Crawford, D.L. 1983. Lignocellulose degradation by Fusarium species. Can. J. Bot. 61:1194-1198.
  11. ^ Christakopoulos, P., Kekos, D., Macris, B.J., Claeyssens, M. and Bhat, M.K. 1995. Purification and mode of action of a low molecular mass endo-1,4-B-D-glucanase from Fusarium oxysporum. J. Biotechnol. 39:85-93.
  12. ^ Christakopoulos, P., Nerinckx, W., Kekos, D., Macris, B. and Claeyssens, M. 1996. Purification and characterization of two low molecular mass alkaline xylanases from Fusarium oxysporum F3. J. Biotechnol. 51:181-180.
  13. ^ Snyder, W.C. and Hansen, H.N. 1940. The species concept in Fusarium. Amer. J. Bot. 27:64-67.
  14. ^ Gordon, T.R., Okamoto, D. and Jacobson, D.J. 1989. Colonization of muskmelon and nonsusceptible crops by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and other species of Fusarium. Phytopathology 79:1095-1100.
  15. ^ Katan, J. 1971. Symptomless carriers of the tomato Fusarium wilt pathogen. Phytopathology 61:1213-1217.
  16. ^ Larkin, R.P., Hopkins, D.L. and Martin, F.N. 1993. Effect of successive watermelon plantings on Fusarium oxysporum and other microorganisms in soils suppressive and conducive to fusarium wilt of watermelon. Phytopathology 83:1097-1105.
  17. ^ Lemanceau, P., Bakker, P.A.H.M., DeKogel, W.J., Alabouvette, C. and Schippers, B. 1993. Antagonistic effect of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and pseudobactin 358 upon pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:74-82.
  18. ^ Teetor-Barsch, G.H. and Roberts, D.W. 1983. Entomogenous Fusarium species. Mycopathologia 84:3-16.
  19. ^ Nelson, P.E., Dignani, M.C. and Anaissie, E.J. 1994. Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:479-504.
  20. ^ Kistler, H.C. 2001. Evolution of host specificity in Fusarium oxysporum. Pages 70-82 in: Fusarium: Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium. B.A. Summerell, J.F. Leslie, D. Backhouse, W.L. Bryden and L.W. Burgess, eds. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
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Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cyclaminis

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Cyclaminis is a fungal plant pathogen infecting cyclamens.

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Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. citri

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. citri is a fungus which reproduces by cell fission. It is a well known plant pathogen infecting citruses.

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