The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Hoenig, John M. and Samuel H. Gruber. “Life-History Patterns in the Elasmobranchs: Implications for Fisheries Management.” NOAA Technical Report NMFS 90: Elasmobranchs as Living Resources: Advances in the Biology, Ecology, Systematics, and the Status of the Fisheries. Harold L. Pratt, Jr., Samuel H. Gruber, and Toru Taniuchi, eds. Springfield: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1990.
  • 10. Bleckmann, Horst and Michael H. Hofmann. “Special Senses.” Sharks, Skates, and Rays: The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes. Ed. William C. Hamlett. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
  • 11. Tricas, T. C. and J. G. New. “Sensitivity and Response Dynamics of Elasmobranch Electrosensory Primary Afferent Neurons to Near Threshold Fields.” Journal of Comparative Physiology A—Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 182.1 (1998): 89-101.
  • 12. Branstetter, Steven, ed. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 115: Conservation Biology of Elasmobranchs. Springfield: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1993.
  • 13. Simpfendorfer, C. A., M. R. Heupel, W. T. White, and N. K. Dulvy. “The Importance of Research and Public Opinion to Conservation Management of Sharks and Rays: A Synthesis.” Marine and Freshwater Research 62.6 (2011): 518-527.
  • 14. “Shark Attacks in Perspective.” Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department: Sharks. International Shark Attack File. 1991. 21 Jul. 2011.
  • 15. Cavanagh, Rachel D. and Claudine Gibson. Overview of the Conservation Status of Cartilaginous Fishes (Chondrichthyans) in the Mediterranean. Malaga: IUCN, 2007.
  • 16. Ebert, David A. and James A. Sulikowski. “Preface: Biology of Skates.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 80.2-3 (2007): 107-110.
  • 2. Bester, Cathleen. “Ray and Skate Basics.” Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department: Education. 7 Sept. 2011.
  • 3. Martin, R. Aidan. “Order Squaliformes: Dogfish Sharks – 119 Species.” ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. 21 Jul. 2011.
  • 4. Kyne, Peter M. and Colin A. Simpfendorfer. “A Collation and Summarization of Available Data on Deepwater Chondrichthyans: Biodiversity, Life History and Fisheries.” IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. 2007.
  • 5. Compagno, Leonard J. V. “Systematics and Body Form.” Sharks, Skates, and Rays: The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes. Ed. William C. Hamlett. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
  • 6. “Sharks: Overview.” Oceana. 2010. 25 Jul. 2011.
  • 7. Schubring, Reinhard. “DSC Measurements on Sharks.” Thermochimica Acta 458.1-2 (2007): 124-131.
  • 8. “Know Before You Go – Marine Animals.” Wet Tropics Visitor Information. Wet Tropics Management Authority. 2010. 7 Sept. 2011.
  • 9. Martin, R. Aidan. “The Importance of Being Cartilaginous.” ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. 21 Jul. 2011.
  • A. C. Brown, Food relationships on the intertidal sandy beaches of the Cape Peninsula, S. Afr. J. Sci. 60:35-41, from p. 39 (1964).
  • Bailly, N. (2015). Elasmobranchii. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2015) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Collette, Bruce B., and Grace Klein-MacPhee, eds. 2002. Cartilaginous Fishes: Class Chondrichthyes. Bigelow and Schroeder's Fishes of the Gulf of Maine, Third Edition. 21-81
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
  • References:
  • Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
  • Wainwright, SA; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, JH. 1978. Shark skin: function in locomotion. Science. 202(4369): 747-749.


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