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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) The historic range is essentially as shown by Brock and Kaufman (2003), but with the species historic in New England, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania and Ohio, and nearly extirpated in Ontario, the New York portion of the current range probably should be regarded as a now widely disjunct and isolated remnant, and Ontario is not longer part of any contiguous range. Thus the core range as of about 2010 is from northeastern West Virginia south to southern Georgia and recently (maybe not now) the Florida panhandle, then west including portions of all of the Gulf states (at least historically) into northeastern (formerly central) Texas and north in the centrl states to Minnesota and Wisconsin, including much of Iowa, eastern parts of Kansas and the Ozarks (Opler and Krizek 1984; Brock and Kaufman 2003), exending east primarily near the Great Lakes across northern Illinois, extreme northern Indiana, at least foremrly widely in Michigan, into extreme northwest Ohio, and formerly a narrow band along the Lakes in southern Ontario barely into Quebec. There is a large gap in the range where it did not occur in most of West Virginia and most of the northern Ohio Valley States, nor in Vermont. It is found as naturally disjunct, isolated populations in northwestern Nebraska, the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains in central Colorado, and in the Black Hills (Stanford 1981, Stanford and Opler 1993, Opler 1994, Opler and Krizek 1984, Brock and Kaufman, 2003) and apparently still occurs in those states. The species may no longer occur in some states in the core range, but is extant in most of the states it is known from west of the Mississippi River, including Texas, Arkansas (Edward Knudson), Iowa (barely, Aaron Brees) as well as in Wisconsin and New York (Robert Dirig, David Wagner, Tim McCabe). Several colonies have been found recently (1990s, 2000s) in the shale region of the Virginias (D.L.Wagner and others) which might be its stronghold now, especially if any of these still function as metapopulations. In North Carolina (LeGrand and thomas, 2011) the species is has recently been found very rarely in the Sand Hills, Piedmont (apparently no longer present) and it still turns up occasionally in northern Georgia (James Adams). This species was reported in a recent (late 1990s-2000s) inventory of Great Smokey Mountains National Park.