The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Hoover, M. (2008). Portuguese Man -of-war (Physalia physalis). Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. 2010,
  • Marques, Antonio C., and Allen G. Collins. 2004. Cladistic analysis of Medusozoa and cnidarian evolution. Invertebrate Biology, vol. 123, no. 1. 23-42
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  • [Anonymous] (2010). Portuguese Man o' War. Wikipedia. 2010,
  • [Anonymous] (2010). Portuguese Man-of-war Physalia physalis. National Geographic. 2010,


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