Overview

Brief Summary

Fossil species

recent & fossil

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Comprehensive Description

Diversity

The Hydrozoa is a subgroup of cnidarians containging approximately 3700 species. It is a diverse group with a variety of life cycles, growth forms, and specialized structures. Like many cnidarians, hydrozoans have both polyp and medusa stages in their life cycle. They are distinguished from other groups by their complex life cycle, by the growth of medusae from buds rather than strobilae or from metamorphosis, by the presence of a velum inside the bell of the medusa, and by the production of gametes from ectodermal, rather than endodermal, tissue. Most hydrozoans are marine, and hydrozoan species are found in nearly every marine habitat type; a very few species live in freshwater. Most hydrozoans form colonies of asexual polyps and free-swimming sexual medusae. Colonies are usually benthic, but some, notably the siphonophores, are pelagic floaters. Colonial polyps often have some division of function, with certain polyps specialized for defense, feeding, or reproduction. Most hydrozoans are predators or filter-feeders, though a few have symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae), in the same way that other other groups of cnidarians do.

Better-known hydrozoans include Portuguese man-o-wars (Physalia physalis), the freshwater genus Hydra, fire coral (Milleporidae), and by-the-wind sailors (Velella velella).

  • Bouillon, J., C. Gravili, F. Pagès, J. Gili, F. Boero. 2006. An Introduction to Hydrozoa. Paris, France: Publications Scientifiques du Muséum.
  • Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
  • Jankowski, T., A. Collins, R. Campbell. 2008. Global diversity of inland water cnidarians. Pp. 35-40 in E Balian, C Lévêque, H Segers, K Martens, eds. Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Netherlands.
  • Mills, C. 2009. "Bioluminescence and other factoids about Aequorea, a hydromedusa" (On-line). Accessed July 10, 2009 at http://faculty.washington.edu/cemills/Aequorea.html.
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Distribution

Geographic Range

Hydrozoans are found in all the oceans, at all latitudes. A few species occur in fresh and brackish water on all continents except Antarctica.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native ); ethiopian (Native ); neotropical (Native ); australian (Native ); oceanic islands (Native ); arctic ocean (Native ); indian ocean (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native ); mediterranean sea (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: cosmopolitan

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Most hydrozoan species have a planktonic larval stage called a planula. Planulae are radially symmetric ovoids, often covered with flagellate cells for swimming. They may be very simple embryos or have cells differentiated into several types. Planulae most often settle onto a benthic substrate and develop into a polyp.

Polyps are radially symmetric, and may be urn-shaped, conical, cylindrical, or club-shaped. In most species they are only a few millimeters tall, though the largest grow up to many centimeters, and one, Branchiocerianthus imperator can be 2 meters tall. At their base hydrozoan polyps have basal disks or elongate processes for attaching to substrate, or they may be attached to other polyps. Often there will also be connections here to hollow tubes (called stolons) that connect the polyp to others in its colony, and allow the exchange of food between polyps. Above the base is a ring of contractile cells called the sphincter. These can contract to isolate the contents of the polyp from the stolons, preventing undigested food from entering the stolons. Above this is the gastric column, which usually contains a digestive chamber with a single opening, a mouth at the apex of the column. A ring of tentacles is attached to the column below the apex and above the sphincter. The number, shape and size of tentacles varies greatly, but there are usually between and 8 and 50 on a single polyp (some have many more, and some specialized polyps may have fewer). Most colonial hydrozoans are polymorphic, with different structures reflecting different functions. Some are armed with large spines tentacles for defense but have no mouth, some have tentacles and functional mouths for feeding, and some are only reproductive, with no tentacles or mouth, and produce medusae (see below) or gametes.

Like all cnidarians, hydrozoans have special ectodermal cells called cnidocytes, each containing a single intracellular structure called a cnida (aka nematocyst). Cnidae are unique to the Cnidaria. Each cnida, when triggered by a mechanical or chemical stimulus, shoots out a tiny hollow tube at high speed. Some cnidae are is equipped with sharp spines, and/or venomous or acidic compounds, but some are adhesive and have neither spines nor toxins. Hydrozoans use different types of cnidae to capture prey, to repel predators, and to attach to substrate.

Most hydrozoan species are colonial. A founding polyp produces new polyps by budding, and these grow a network of interconnecting hollow tubes (stolons) formed of living tissue, collectively called the coenosarc. Colony growth forms vary between species, some may form a single layer of polyps spreading across the substrate, others growing as erect stems, with polyps growing off the stems. Polyps and the coenosarc may secrete chitinous sheaths, or stems, or calcareous coatings (the latter forming structures similar to the anthozoan Scleractinia, the stony corals). In many colonies, polyps are polymorphic, with different structures reflecting different functions. Some have no mouth, but are armed with large spines or cnidae-equipped tentacles for defense, some have tentacles and functional mouths for feeding, and some, with neither mouth nor tentacles, are strictly reproductive, and produce medusae (see below) or gametes.

The medusa is the sexually reproducing stage in most hydrozoans. They are often formed by budding from polyps, and are usually solitary free-swimming organisms. They are similar in structure to an inverted polyp, radially symmetric, and often have four-fold symmetry. Their main body part is the umbrella, a bell or cone shaped gelatin-filled structure, which floats with the opening down. Medusa are usually small, usually 1-50 mm in diameter, though a few are larger, the largest (genus g. Rhacostoma) grow to 400 mm in diameter. Around the inside of the opening is a muscular ring of tissue called the velum. The velum can contract and relax, changing the diameter of the opening, and playing an important role in swimming The presence of the velum is a diagnostic character for Hydrozoa, only one genus, Obelia, has lost it. Around the outside of the opening of the umbrella is a ring of tentacles, which vary greatly among species in number, shape, and degree of arming with cnidocytes. Inside the umbrella, suspended like the clapper of a bell, is the manubrium, which contains the gastric cavity, and ends in a mouth. Structures that produce gametes form on the sides of the manubrium. Most species have dioecious medusae, each individual producing only eggs or sperm. Some are monoecious, but usually not simultaneously hermaphrodite. In some species sex is determined by environmental conditions, mainly temperature.

Both polyps and medusae have networks of nerves, but no brain or central ganglion. Some have light-sensitive structures called ocelli, and many have statocysts that allow them to detect gravity and their orientation.

These structural patterns are common, but there is great variation in the life cycles of hydrozoans. Some have suppressed or reduced one or more stages. In the Siphonophora and a few other groups of hydrozoans, colonies of polyps are pelagic, and float at the surface by means of a gas-filled tissue. They often retain medusae as part of the colony.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; radial symmetry ; polymorphic ; venomous

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnosis

Cnidaria with mostly epidermal gonads. Original life cycle includes a polyp and a medusa stage. The medusa stage develops the gonads. Polyps always without internal septae and pharynx, mostly radially symmetric. Medusae produced by budding from polyp stage, if such a stage is present. Medusa nearly always with a velum, without rhopalia. The original life cycle has been modified extensively: the medusa stage is often reduced to a mere appendage of the polyp stage, rarely completely reduced. In some orders the polyp stage is strongly or completely reduced. Polyp stages form often colonies of macroscopic size. Integrated colonies including polypoid and medusoid structures can also form complex colonies, giving them it the appearance of an individual organism.
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Ecology

Habitat

Hydrozoans are found in nearly all marine habitats, except perhaps heavy surf zones. They are most abundant and diverse in warm shallow waters, probably as a reflection of food abundance. The small number of freshwater species occur in both lotic and lentic habitats, and are more abundant in eutrophic and mesotrophic waters.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; polar ; saltwater or marine ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: pelagic ; benthic ; reef ; oceanic vent ; lakes and ponds; rivers and streams; temporary pools; coastal ; abyssal ; brackish water

Wetlands: marsh ; swamp

Other Habitat Features: estuarine ; intertidal or littoral

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Hydrozoans vary in their feeding habits. Many trap small zooplankton with their tentacles. Some filter suspended particles (such as fish eggs and fecal pellets) from the water column. Some consume phytoplankton. A few groups contain symbiotic algae, and may get most of their nutritional needs from their symbiotes.

Pelagic hydrozoans, including siphonophore colonies and medusae, are known to show some selectivity in prey types, some taking mainly fish larvae, others taking soft-bodied invertebrates, others micro-crustaceans. They are also sensitive to chemicals produced by prey, and will move towards higher concentrations of these chemicals.

Large populations of hydromedusae may be significant ecological factors in pelagic marine ecosystems.

Foraging Behavior: filter-feeding

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats eggs, Eats non-insect arthropods); planktivore ; detritivore

  • Purcell, J. 1997. Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores as predators: selective predation, feeding rates, and effects on prey populations. Annales de l'Institute Oceanographique, 72/2: 125-137.
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Associations

Animal / predator
adult of Velutina plicatilis is predator of Hydrozoa

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Ecosystem Roles

Hydrozoans are both predators and prey for many marine organisms, and large seasonal blooms of medusae may strongly affect local fish and zooplankton populations. Some species of polyps are hosts for symbiotic algae, and many large pelagic forms have symbiotic hyperiid amphipods living on or in them. There is even a small species of fish, Nomeus gronovii, that lives in association with Portuguese man-o-wars. Some polyp colonies grow on the shells of hermit crabs, providing them protection.

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Predation

Despite their protective stinging cells, hydrozoans are prey for many types of predators. A variety of snails and worms graze on polyps and stolons, as do some fish and crustaceans. Fish also consume medusae and pelagic colonial hydrozoans, as do some sea turtles (especially leatherbacks), ctenophores, and other cnidarians, including larger hydrozoans.

A variety of predators have the ability to consume the stinging cells of hydrozoans without triggering them. These predators then sequester the stinging cells in their body to defend them against their own predators. Nudibranchs are particularly well known for this ability, but some species of ctenophores, turbellarian flatworms, and priapulids can store cnidocysts as well.

Nearly all hydrozoans protect themselves with their cnidocysts. Some colonial species have specialized polyps that grow large tentacles armed with dense batteries of these stinging cells or grow large rigid spines. Many colonial polyps secrete a rigid protective layer over stolons and polyp tubes. This layer is often made of chitin, some groups produce a mineral skeleton. Free-swimming medusae cannot use rigid protection, but do defend themselves with stinging cells. There is evidence that some also contain toxic compounds that discourage predators from eating them. Most hydrozoan medusae also follow the diel migration pattern common to many planktonic organisms -- sinking below the limit of light penetration to avoid visual predators during the day, and then rising towards the surface at night in pursuit of prey.

Known Predators:

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Known prey organisms

Hydrozoa (Hydroids) preys on:
Crangon
Mysidae
Gammaridae
Hyperiidae
Caprellidae
Isopoda

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Known predators

  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

All hydrozoans have tactile and chemical sensing structures. Some also have eyespots that detect light, and/or statocysts that detect gravity. They communicate mainly by chemical signals. Some free-swimming hydrozoans, including many siphonophores have bioluminescent structures. It's not known what function these serve. It is unlikely that they communicate with other hydrozoans (their light sensors are too simple for this). Possibly they are lures for prey or have some predator defense function.

Communication Channels: visual ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: photic/bioluminescent ; pheromones

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Life Cycle

Development

Hydrozoans have a complex life cycle, usually with two or three morphologically different stages. The classic cycle starts with fertilized eggs developing into small, free swimming larvae called planulae, which may be able to enter a dormant resting state to resist unsuitable environmental conditions. Planulae transform into sessile polyps, usually attached to substrate, but free-floating in some groups. Polyps duplicate themselves asexually by budding, often producing colonies of hundreds or thousands of polymorphic individual polyps. Polyps produce "adult" sexually-reproducing medusae by budding. Medusae are solitary, free-swimming, dieocious. They release sperm and eggs into the water, where fertilization occurs. This is the basic cycle, but there is an enormous range of variations. In nearly half of species (e.g. Hydra) the the medusa stage is entirely suppressed; polyps produce gametes directly. In others the medusa are formed, but never detach from the parent polyp, and produce gametes while still attached. In some cases these fused combinations form elaborate structures. In other taxa the polyp stage is suppressed, and planulae transform directly into tiny medusae, or form a polyp, produce a medusa, and resorb the polyp. Numerous taxa have suppressed the planula as well.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis ; colonial growth

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Reproduction

Hydrozoans are mostly broadcast spawners. In some species only sperm is shed, and eggs are retained on the parent. Eggs release sperm-attracting compounds.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Hydrozoan polyps reproduce asexually by budding, creating daughter polyps, medusae, or both. In some species medusae reproduce asexually as well, by fission or budding. Medusae (if present in the life cycle) or polyps produce gametes. Most hydrozoan species are dioecious, a few are sequential hermaphrodites. Eggs and sperm are most often released into the water column and fertilization is external. In some species eggs are retained and fertilized internally, in which case embryos may be releases as larvae or retained until even more developed.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sequential hermaphrodite; sexual ; asexual ; fertilization (External , Internal ); ovoviviparous ; oviparous

Most hydrozoan species have minimal parental investment. Eggs and sperm are released into the water, and left to survive on their own. In a few species, eggs are retained in special structures on the parent, and the embryos are retained as brood, developing to the planula or even young polyp stage. In the latter case we have no information on whether the young are nourished by their parent, or just protected.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female)

  • Bouillon, J., C. Gravili, F. Pagès, J. Gili, F. Boero. 2006. An Introduction to Hydrozoa. Paris, France: Publications Scientifiques du Muséum.
  • Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:2,071Public Records:1,214
Specimens with Sequences:1,310Public Species:101
Specimens with Barcodes:882Public BINs:241
Species:214         
Species With Barcodes:130         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Hydrozoa

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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Florida Museum of Natural History
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Conservation

Conservation Status

The conservation status of the vast majority of hydrozoan species is unknown. Species in two families, the fire corals (Milleporidae) and the lace corals (Stylasteridae), have been commercially harvested, and in some places over-exploited. They are now listed in Appendix I of CITES, the international treaty limiting trade in wildlife. Also the IUCN has evaluated many species of Millepora and rated several of them Endangered.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

The stings of some hydrozoans (most famously the Portuguese man-o-war, Physalis physalis), are dangerous to humans. Also, the fire corals (Milleporidae) get their name from the painful sensation divers get if they touch them.

Hydrozoans are common members of "fouling communities" -- the benthic organisms that naturally attach to hard substrates, and so grow on the hulls of ships and on submerged water pipes, interfering with their function.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings, venomous )

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Hydrozoans are important parts of many marine food chains, and so directly or indirectly support desirable food sources. Species in two families that have colonies with calcareous exoskeletons (Milleporidae, Stylasteridae) have been harvested commercially, and probably still are. There are now limits on their trade and some are considered endangered (see Conservation Status).

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