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BiologyThe brimstone is univoltine, meaning that one generation is produced per year. During May, females lay their eggs singly on the undersides of leaves of the foodplants. The caterpillars hatch after around ten days; they then feed on the leaves, typically resting along the mid-rib where they are difficult to spot (3). After around a month, pupation takes place; the caterpillars attach their pupae to the stems of the foodplant. Around two weeks later the adults emerge (3); they do not mate at this time but instead spend many hours feeding on nectar, building up reserves for hibernation. This species has a very long proboscis, and can exploit flowers with very deep nectarines, including runner bean flowers and teasels (5).