Overview

Brief Summary

North American Ecology (US and Canada)

Mostly migratory in North America (Scott 1986). Habitats are OPEN AREAS AND ROADSIDES. Host plants are usually herbaceous with most known hosts largely restricted to a few species in one family, Compositae. Eggs are laid on the host plant singly. There are multiple flights each year with the approximate flight time MAR1-DEC31 depending on latitude (Scott 1986).
  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Leslie Ries

Partner Web Site: North American Butterfly Knowledge Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Resident in southern California, Arizona, and states border- ing the Gulf of Mexico; also, south through Mexico to South America. Emigrates throughout the Midwest, as far north as Manitoba.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Disturbed and grazed areas. Hosts including genus Tagetes, Helenium autunale, Bidens pilosa, others in family Asteraceae. Habitats may be open, brushy or sparsely wooded. A seasonal immigrant and transient breeder in most of US range.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flowering Plants Visited by Nathalis iole in Illinois

Nathalis iole Boisduval: Pieridae, Lepidoptera
(observations are from Robertson, Fothergill & Vaughn; this butterfly is the Dainty Sulfur)

Asteraceae: Aster ericoides sn (Rb), Aster pilosus sn (Rb), Aster subulatus sn (FV), Bidens aristosa sn (Rb), Taraxacum officinale sn (FV); Fabaceae: Trifolium repens sn (FV); Verbenaceae: Phyla lanceolata sn (FV)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Adults feed mainly from nectar. Males patrol for females (Scott, 1986).
  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Leslie Ries

Partner Web Site: North American Butterfly Knowledge Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Nathalis iole

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACATTATATTTTATTTTTGGNATTTGAKCAGGAATRGTAGGAACTTCTTTAAGATTWTTAATTCGAACAGAATTAGGWAATCCWGGTTCTCTAATTGGWGAT---GATCAAATTTAYAAYWCTATTGTWACAGCWCATGCTTTTATTATAATTTTTTTCATAGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGAGGATTTGGWAATTGAYTARTMCCTCTAATATTAGGAGCMCCWGATATAGCWTTYCCWCGWATAAATAATATGAGWTTTTGACTACTMCCCCCWTCATTAACTCTTCTAATTTCCAGAAGAATCGTTGAAAATGGAGCTGGAACAGGATGAACAGTTTACCCCCCACTTTCTTCCAATATCGCTCATAGAGGAGCCTCAGTAGATTTAGCTATTTTCTCATTACATTTAGCTGGAATTTCATCTATTTTAGGAGCCATTAATTTTATTACAACTATTATTAATATACGAATTAATAATATATCATTTGATCAAATACCACTTTTTGTGTGAGCTGTTGGAATCACAGCTCTTCTTTTATTATTATCATTACCTGTATTAGCAGGAGCTATTACTATATTATTAACAGATCGAAATTTAAATACATCATTTTTCGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGTGATCCTATCTTATACCAACATTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGACACCCAGAAGTTTATATTTTAATTTTACCAGGATTTGGAATAATTTCTCATATCATTTCTCAAGAAAGAGGAAAAAAAGAAACTTTTGGATCTTTAGGAATAATTTACGCTATAATAGCAATTGGATTACTAGGATTTATTGTATGAGCCCATCATATATTTACAGTAGGAATAGATATTGACACTCGAG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Nathalis iole

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 44
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Common, wide-ranging, weedy species. Highly emigratory.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Degree of Threat: D : Unthreatened throughout its range, communities may be threatened in minor portions of the range or degree of variation falls within natural variation

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Global Protection: Many to very many (13 to >40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Nathalis iole

The Dainty Sulphur or Dwarf Yellow (Nathalis iole) is a North American butterfly in the family Pieridae.

Contents

Description [edit]

For a key to the terms used see Lepidopteran glossary

This species is the smallest North American pierid. A rare population, known from Homestead (Smith et al., 1994), is said to have mostly white individuals. Some feel that the Dainty Sulphur is so unique among pierids, in shape and in several structural features, that it should belong in a separate subfamily. Its appearance is highly variable but identification should not be a problem. The fore wings elongated shape is distinctive. The upper side of the wings is yellow with the tip of the fore wing being black. Black bars extend along the trailing edge of the fore wing and the leading edge of the hind wing. Male Dainty Sulphurs have an oval scent patch (called an androconial spot) in each hind wing bar. The androconial spot is reddish-orange but fades to pale yellow after death. The underside of the wings varies depending on the season. Summer individuals have yellowish hind wings whereas winter individuals have greenish-gray hind wings. Both forms have black spots near the fore wing margin and have a yellowish-orange patch near the base of the fore wing.

Similar Species [edit]

Similar species in the Dainty Sulphur's range include the Barred Yellow (Eurema daira) and the Little Yellow (Eurema lisa).

The Barred Yellow is larger than the Dainty Sulphur, and the underside of the wings is either all grayish-white or brownish-red.

The Little Yellow is also larger than the Dainty Sulphur, lacks the dorsal fore wing and hind wing black bars, and on the underside of the fore wing lacks the black spots and the yellowish-orange patch.

Habitat [edit]

Almost any open space including coastal flats, deserts, fields, roadsides, vacant lots, and waste areas. It usually flies very low to the ground.

Life cycle [edit]

Males patrol just inches above the ground in search of females. If a male finds a female and is faced with rejection, males are likely to engage in an open-winged display, showing off their dorsal bars and their androconial spots. This last-resort effort to impress the female will often make her reconsider her unwise decision.Females lay their lemon-yellow or orange-yellow eggs singly on young or emerging leaves of the host plant. The eggs will hatch within 4–7 days. The larvae are quite variable. Some larvae are dark green, while others are dark green with bright pinkish-purple stripes. The stiff haired larvae have two pinkish-red bumps just above the head. The green or yellow-green chrysalis is covered with yellow-white dots. It lacks a projection on the head which is found in most pierids. The Dainty Sulphur will migrate south to spend the winter because it is unable to survive the cold. If day length is short when it's a larva, the Dainty Sulphur produces a winter phenotype upon forming its chrysalis which will then produce a butterfly with three times the usual number of dark scales. This allows it to absorb solar heat more easily. It has multiple broods per year.

Host Plants [edit]

Here are a list of host plants used by the Dainty Sulphur:

Image gallery [edit]

References [edit]

  • Rick Cech and Guy Tudor 2005. Butterflies of the East Coast. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-09055-6
  • Ernest M. Shull 1987. The Butterflies of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science. ISBN 0-253-31292-2
  • James A. Scott 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. ISBN 0-8047-2013-4
  • Paul A. Opler and Vickai Malikul 1992. Eastern Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin, New York, NY. ISBN 0-395-90453-6
  • Thomas J. Allen, Jim P. Brock and Jeffrey Glassberg 2005. Caterpillars in the Field and Garden. Oxford University Press Inc. ISBN 0-19-514987-4
  • Jim P. Brock and Kenn Kaufman 2003. Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin, New York NY. ISBN 0-618-15312-8
  • Bob Stewart, Priscilla Brodkin and Hank Brodkin 2001. Butterflies of Arizona. West Coast Lady Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!