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Biology

A single generation is produced each year; the adult flight period occurs between the third week of May to the end of June (4). Eggs are laid singly on a blade of grass, and hatch after ten days or so (5). The caterpillar creates a tube by spinning the edges of the grass-blade together; it emerges from this shelter in order to feed above it (5). Below the shelter it makes notches in the leaf, which may help to retain nutrients and prevent defensive chemicals from entering the region above the shelter (4). Towards the end of September the caterpillar creates another, larger shelter consisting of a number of leaves, in which it hibernates, emerging the following spring (5). It does not feed at this time, but pupates amongst vegetation (4). The adults emerge towards the end of May (5).

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