Evolution and Systematics
Some snakes move by passing one or two curves down their bodies (concertina movement) using scales to apply pressure points.
"Snakes can also engage in what's called 'concertina' movement, in which one or two curves pass down the length of an otherwise straight animal. This works well for an animal confined within a channel just a bit larger than itself (such as a rodent's burrow). At least one snake, Bitis caudalis, the South African desert viper, can jump, getting entirely airborne and moving a distance almost equal to its length (Gans 1974)." (Vogel 2003:489)
Learn more about this functional adaptation.
- Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||1,923||Public Records:||670|
|Specimens with Sequences:||1,517||Public Species:||208|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||1,438||Public BINs:||182|
|Species With Barcodes:||395|
The hognose snake is a type of colubrid snake characterized by an upturned snout. They are notorious for playing dead when threatened. The hognose snakes consist of three distantly related genera that are artificially grouped together by the "hognose" common name: Heterodon which are predominantly found in United States and northern Mexico. Leioheterodon the Madagascar hognose snakes, and Lystrophis the South American or tri-colored hognose snakes.
- Eastern Hognose Snake, Heterodon platirhinos (Latreille, 1801)
- Southern Hognose Snake, Heterodon simus (Linnaeus, 1766)
- Speckled Hognose Snake, Leioheterodon geayi (Mocquard, 1905)
- Malagasy Giant Hognose Snake, Leioheterodon madagascariensis (Duméril & Bibron, 1854)
- Blonde Hognose Snake, Leioheterodon modestus (Günther, 1863)
- South American Hognose Snake, Lystrophis dorbignyi (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854)
- Jan's Hognose Snake, Lystrophis histricus (Jan, 1863)
- Lystrophis matogrossensis (Scrocchi & Cruz, 1993)
- Tri-color Hognose Snake, Lystrophis pulcher (Jan, 1863)
- Ringed Hognose Snake, Lystrophis semicinctus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854)
Hognose snakes' most distinguishing characteristic is their upturned snout, which aids in digging in sandy soils by using a sweeping, side to side motion. They also like to burrow in masses of humus.
Hognose snakes are extremely variable in color and pattern. H. nasicus and H. kennerlyi tend to be sandy colored with black and white markings, while H. platirhinos varies from reds, greens, oranges, browns, to melanistic (i.e. black) depending on locality. They are sometimes blotched and sometimes solid-colored. L. geayi is a brown or tan colored snake with dark speckling on it. L. madagascariensis is typically green and yellow with a black checkerboard pattern along its back. L. modestus is normally a gold-brown color. The species in the genus Lystrophis are referred to as tri-color hognose snakes and sometimes as false coral snakes because they display alternating bands of red, white, and black.
Leioheterodon are the largest of the hognose snakes, capable of reaching lengths of 1.8 m. H. platirhynos gets slightly larger than other species of the genus, reaching lengths of 80 cm, where other species in the genus as well as Lystrophis species usually average around 65 cm at adult size.
Hognose snakes (Heterodon) are rear-fanged. The fangs have been referred to as just "enlarged teeth", but they are genuine fangs that are used for prey restraint. Despite the common belief, there is no evidence to support the fangs being used for "toad popping". Under this belief, the toads inflate their lungs to make swallowing difficult, but the fangs would penetrate the lungs and deflate them. However, whole toads with intact lungs are commonly regurgitated by recently captured hognoses.
The coloration of this essentially spotted snake is extremely variable, with color phases ranging from yellow and brown to black and gray. The most reliable field work is the turned-up, hoglike snout, which is used for digging out the toads that are its primary food.
When threatened, hognose snakes will flatten their necks and raise their heads off the ground, like a cobra, and hiss. They may sometimes feign strikes, though they will almost never bite unless one were to smell like their prey. This behavior has earned them several nicknames, such as "puff adder", "blowing adder", "flathead", "spreadhead", "spreading adder" or "hissing adder". Note, though, the nickname "puff adder" is only a nickname, and is not scientifically correct. There is a highly venomous viper from Africa called the puff adder, Bitis arietans.
If this threat display does not work to deter a would-be predator, hognose snakes will often roll onto their back and play dead, going so far as to emit a foul musk and fecal matter from their cloaca and let their tongue hang out of their mouth, sometimes accompanied by small droplets of blood. If they are rolled upright while in this state, they will often roll back as if insisting they really are dead. It has been observed that the snake, while appearing to be dead, will still watch the threat that caused the death pose. The snake will 'resurrect' sooner if the threat is looking away from it than if the threat is looking at the snake. Hognose snakes are not easily angered however and one would have to be deliberately irking them to provoke a reaction. They are rather timid snakes and will often hide from predators by burrowing down into leaves, sand etc.
Heterodon are diurnal active foragers that typically consume their prey live without any constriction or body pinning, primarily relying on only their jaws as a weapon.
For most hog nose snakes the bulk of their diet is made up by rodents, and lizards. H. platirhinos is an exception, and specializes in feeding on toads although other food items such as eggs, insects and mice can make up as much as 50% of their diet.
Hognose snakes are frequently found in herpetoculture. H. nasicus are often considered to be the easiest to care for, and captive bred stock is easily found. H. platirhinos is also commonly found, but their dietary requirements can be a challenge for some keepers, and there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that feeding them a diet of exclusively rodents contributes to liver problems and a shortened life span. Leioheterodon species are imported regularly from Madagascar, and are not often bred in captivity and get much larger, so can pose a set of different challenges for care. Lystrophis species are fairly new to the commercial reptile trade, and are now commonly bred in captivity, but can be some of the more expensive hognose snakes available.
There has been some debate over whether hognoses are venomous. Their saliva is toxic to small prey such as frogs and toads, and thus meets the definition of venom. However, it is not likely to cause serious injury to humans, particularly as hognoses are rear-fanged and do not bite in defense (i.e., the only way to get bitten by a hognose snake is to smell like their prey). In rare cases, humans may experience local swelling and blistering as a result of a bite.
- The song "Copperline" by James Taylor contains the lyrics:
- "Half a mile down to Morgan Creek, leaning heavy on the end of the week.
- Hercules and a hognosed snake, down on Copperline, we were down on Copperline."
- Burghardt, G.M.; Greene, H.W. (1988). "Predator simulation and duration of death feigning in neonate hognose snakes". Animal Behaviour 36 (November–December): 842–44. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(88)80127-1.
- Hognose.com: Eastern Hognose Species Description
- Hognose Snake Care Sheet
- "Carolina on my mind: The James Taylor story," exhibit at the Chapel Hill Museum, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Information retrieved 2007-12-24.
Fox snake or Foxsnake is the common name given to two species of North American rat snakes. Neither poses a threat to humans, but it is killed by many people who mistake it for the Massasauga rattlesnake, which shares parts of its geographical range with the fox snake and is venomous.
The eastern fox snake (Pantherophis gloydi) is uncommon throughout its restricted range in Ontario, Michigan and Ohio where it is found only near Lakes Huron and Erie. The western fox snake (Pantherophis vulpina) occurs in the open forests, prairies, and farmlands of western Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Iowa, and South Dakota. Their ranges do not overlap.
Until recently the eastern and western fox snakes were considered to be subspecies of Pantherophis vulpina, with the western fox snake being Pantherophis vulpina vulpina and the eastern fox snake Pantherophis vulpina gloydi.
Utiger et al. (2002) argued that North American rat snakes of the genus Elaphe are a monophyletic group and thus separate from Old World members of the genus. They therefore resurrected the available name Pantherophis Fitzinger for all North American taxa (north of Mexico).
However, much controversy over the taxonomic suggestion surfaced and the International Committee for Zoological Nomenclature has not supported the change. In 2008, Crother et al. retained the taxonomic change to Pantherophis "until further data are collected".
- Western Foxsnake, Pantherophis vulpina (Baird and Girard, 1853)
- Eastern Foxsnake, Pantherophis gloydi (Conant, 1940)
Fox snakes are primarily diurnal and terrestrial, rodent feeding snakes. The western fox snake takes a range of suitably sized mammals including mice, rats and even small rabbits while the eastern fox snake specializes in meadow voles and takes other prey much less frequently. Birds and other animals are also occasional prey. Both kill their prey by constriction, though small prey may be eaten without constriction.
Fox snakes, like many other harmless snakes, sometimes mimic rattlesnakes by vibrating their tails. This defensive strategy backfired when humans began persecuting rattlesnakes and, with them, fox snakes. They are generally docile animals but may bite when molested. Their bite feels like very small needle punctures, but does not do any lasting damage. The bite is primarily used for holding purposes.
In the winter months fox snakes will hibernate, often congregating with other snakes, even those of other species, in suitable den sites.
Mating occurs in the late spring and early summer months. A clutch averaging 15–20 eggs is laid in mid summer and normally hatches in early fall.
The state of Michigan lists the eastern fox snake as threatened, largely due to habitat loss. In Ontario the eastern fox snake is listed as threatened and protected by the Species at Risk Act (SARA). The extent of their decline is currently the subject of study by biologists at Queen's University. The western fox snake is listed by the state of Missouri as endangered due to prairie loss and wetland drainage.
The Colubridae (from Latin coluber, snake) are a family of snakes. With 304 genera and 1,938 species, Colubridae is the largest snake family, and includes about two-thirds of all current snake species. The earliest species of the family date back to the Oligocene epoch. Colubrid species are found on every continent except Antarctica.
While most colubrids are nonvenomous (or have venom that is not known to be harmful to humans) and are mostly harmless, a few groups, such as genus Boiga, can produce medically significant bites, while the boomslang, the twig snakes and the Asian genus Rhabdophis have caused human fatalities.
Some of the colubrids are described as opisthoglyphous, meaning they have elongated, grooved teeth located in the back of the upper jaw. The opisthoglyphous dentition appears at least twice in the history of snakes. These are unlike those of vipers and elapids, which are located in the front.
The Colubridae are not a natural group, as many are more closely related to other groups, such as elapids, than to each other. This family has classically been a garbage bin taxon for snakes that do not fit elsewhere. It is hoped that ongoing research will sort out the relations within this group.
- Buhoma (tentatively placed here)
- Duberria (tentatively placed here)
- Montaspis (tentatively placed here)
Subfamily Colubrinae - nearly 100 genera
- Calamodontophis (tentatively placed here)
- Carphophis (tentatively placed here)
- Contia (tentatively placed here)
- Crisantophis (tentatively placed here)
- Diadophis (tentatively placed here)
- Diaphorolepsis (tentatively placed here)
- Echinanthera (tentatively placed here)
- Emmochliophis (tentatively placed here)
- Enuliophis (tentatively placed here)
- Enulius (tentatively placed here)
- Gomesophis (tentatively placed here)
- Hydromorphus (tentatively placed here)
- Nothopsis (tentatively placed here)
- Pseudotomodon (tentatively placed here)
- Ptychophis (tentatively placed here)
- Rhadinophanes (tentatively placed here)
- Synophis (tentatively placed here)
- Tachymenis (tentatively placed here)
- Taeniophallus (tentatively placed here)
- Tantalophis (tentatively placed here)
- Thamnodynastes (tentatively placed here)
- Tomodon (tentatively placed here)
- Xenopholis (tentatively placed here)
Subfamily Homalopsinae - about 10 genera
Subfamily Natricinae - about 30 genera
Subfamily Pareatinae - three genera
Subfamily Pseudoxyrhophiinae - about 20 genera
Subfamily Xenodontinae - some 55-60 genera
- Omoadiphas (recently discovered)
- Bauer, Aaron M. (1998). Cogger, H.G. & Zweifel, R.G., ed. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 188–195. ISBN 0-12-178560-2.
- Bruna Azara, C. 1995. Animales venenosos. Vertebrados terrestres venenosos peligrosos para el ser humano en España. Bol. SEA, 11: 32-40
- Lawson, R; Slowinski, J.B.; Crother, B.I.; Burbrink, F.T. (2005). "Phylogeny of the Colubroidea (Serpentes): New evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear genes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 581–601. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.016. PMID 16172004.
- Fry, B.G.; Vidal, N.; van der Weerd, L.; Kochva, E.; Renjifo, C. (2009). "Evolution and diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system". Journal of Proteomics 72: 127–136.
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