North American Ecology (US and Canada)
- Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.
occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Resident in southern Arizona, Texas; strays into Florida and the Midwest. Also occurs in tropical America.
Comments: Arid plains and open places, with its larval host, Porliera angustifolia, and perhaps others in family Zygophyllaceae.
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Kricogonia lyside
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Kricogonia lyside
Public Records: 14
Specimens with Barcodes: 58
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread, common neotropical species; in US resident only in southern Texas.
Degree of Threat: D : Unthreatened throughout its range, communities may be threatened in minor portions of the range or degree of variation falls within natural variation
Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed
Kricogonia lyside, commonly known as the Lyside Sulphur or Guayacan Sulphur, is a North and South American butterfly in the family Pieridae. In seasons with heavy monsoons, this butterfly is seen in massive migrations which are frequent in Texas but more rare in the southwest. It is also an occasional resident in southern Florida.
The Lyside Sulphur is variable. The upper side of the wings is pale yellow, usually with a black bar on the leading edge of the hind wing and a bright yellow patch near the base of the fore wing. Some individuals also have black borders along the costa and apex of the fore wing. The underside of the wings varies from a greenish color to bright yellow to almost white. Greener individuals have a whitish vein in the center of the hind wing and a bright yellow fore wing basal patch. It has a wingspan of 3.8 to 6 cm (1.5 to 2.4 in).
Queen Alexandra's Sulphur has more yellow on the underside of the fore wing and has a whitish spot in the center of the hind wing.
The Cloudless Sulphur is larger and is much more yellow.
The Lyside Sulphur may be found in open, subtropical scrub.
The larva is highly variable. It ranges in color from grass green to blackish-green. It may have markings or may be unmarked. Marked individuals usually have dorsal and spiracular silvery stripes. It is the only caterpillar to feed on plants in the family Zygophyllaceae. Apparently they feed exclusively on the leaves of three Guaiacum species: G. sanctum and G. angustifolium in Central and North America and G. officinale in South America and the Caribbean. The chrysalis is a bluish-green color. The Lyside Sulphur can grow from egg to adult in as little as 13 days. It has 3 or more broods per year in southern Texas.
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- Scott, James A. (1986). The Butterflies of North America. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2013-4.
- Brock, Jim P.; Kenn Kaufman (2003). Butterflies of North America. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-15312-8.
- Cech, Rick; Guy Tudor (2005). Butterflies of the East Coast. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09055-6.
- "Lyside Sulphur Kricogonia lyside (Godart, 1819)". Butterflies and Moths of North America. Retrieved 2010-09-07.
- Stewart, Bob; Priscilla Brodkin and Hank Brodkin (2001). Butterflies of Arizona. West Coast Lady Press. ISBN 0-9663072-1-6.
- Beccaloni, George W.; Ángel L. Viloria.; Stephen K. Hall.; Gaden S. Robinson (2008). Catalogue of the hostplants of the Neotropical butterflies. Catálogo de las plantas huésped de las mariposas neotropicales, Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (SEA)/ Red Iberoamericana de Biogeografía y Entomología Sistemática (RIBES)/ Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo (CYTED) / Natural History Museum, London (NHM) / Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, m3m: Monografías 3ercer Milenio, volumen 8 , Zaragoza, 536 pp., 1 fig. 3 tabls. ISBN 978-84-935872-2-2
- Allen, Thomas J.; Jim P. Brock and Jeffrey Glassberg (2005). Caterpillars in the Field and Garden. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514987-6.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Both sexes highly variable.
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