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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Barry T. H. 1963. On the variable occurrence of the tympanum in recent and fossil tetrapods. South African Journal of Science 59: 160-175.
  • Benton M. J. 1985. Classification and phylogeny of the diapsid reptiles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 84: 97-164.
  • Brinkman D. B., D. S. Berman, & D. A. Eberth. 1984. A new araeoscelid reptile, Zarcasaurus tanyderus, from the Cutler Formation (Lower Permian) of north central New Mexico. New Mexico Geology 1984: 34-39.
  • Butler AJ, Rees T, Beesley P, Bax NJ. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11831. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011831
  • Caldwell M. 1996. Ichthyosauria: a preliminary phylogenetic analysis of diapsid affinities. Neuen Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie. Abhandlungen 200: 361-386.
  • Carroll R. L. 1975. Permo-Triassic "lizards" from the Karroo. Palaeontologia Africana 18: 71-87.
  • Carroll R. L. 1976a. Galesphyrus capensis, a younginid eosuchian from the Cistephalus zone of South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 72: 59-68.
  • Carroll R. L. 1976b. Eosuchians and the Origin of Archosaurs. In: C. S. Churcher (ed.) Athlon-Essays on Palaeontology in Honour of Loris Shano Russell: 58-79. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. Life Sciences. Miscalleneous Publications.
  • Carroll R. L. 1981. Plesiosaur ancestors from the Upper Permian of Madagascar. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 293: 315-383.
  • Carroll R. L. 1987. Heleosuchus: an enigmatic diapsid reptile from the Late Permian or Early Triassic of southern Africa. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 24: 664-667.
  • Currie P. J. 1981. Hovasaurus boules, an aquatic eosuchian from the Upper Permian of Madagascar. Palaeontologia Africana 24: 99-168.
  • Currie P. J. 1982. The osteology and relationships of Tangasaurus mennelli Haughton (Reptilia, Eosuchia). Annals of the South African Museum 86: 247-265.
  • Currie P. J. c. 1980. A new younginid (Reptilia: Eosuchia) from the Upper Permian of Madagascar. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 17: 500-511.
  • Ernst, C. H., and G. R. Zug. 1996. Snakes in Question. 203
  • Estes R., K. de Queiroz, & J. Gauthier. 1988. Phylogenetic Relationships within Squamata. In: R. Estes and G. Pregill (ed.) Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families: 119-281. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Evans S. E. 1987. The phylogeny of Prolacertiformes. In: P. M. Currie and E. H. Koster, Fourth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Short Papers in Drumheller, Alberta,
  • Evans S. E. 1988. The early history and relationships of the Diapsida. In: M. J. Benton (ed.) The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods: 221-260. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73
  • Fraser N. C. 1988. The osteology and relationships of Clevosaurus (Reptilia: Sphenodontida). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B321: 125-178.
  • Fujikura K, Lindsay D, Kitazato H, Nishida S, Shirayama. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11836. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011836
  • Gauthier J. 1984. A cladistic analysis of the higher systematic categories of the Diapsida. PhD, University of California at Berkeley.
  • Gauthier J. A. 1994. The diversification of the amniotes. In: D. R. Prothero and R. M. Schoch (ed.) Major Features of Vertebrate Evolution: 129-159. Knoxville, Tennessee: The Paleontological Society.
  • Gauthier J., A. G. Kluge, & T. Rowe. 1988b. The early evolution of the Amniota. In: M. J. Benton (ed.) The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods, Volume 1: amphibians, reptiles, birds: 103-155. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Gauthier J., R. Estes, & K. de Queiroz. 1988a. A phylogenetic analysis of Lepidosauromorpha. In: R. Estes and G. Pregill (ed.) Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families: 15-98. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Goin C. J., O. B. Goin, & G. R. Zug. 1978. Introduction to herpetology. Vol. 1. New York: W. H. Freeman and company.
  • Harriss J. M. & R. L. Carroll. 1977. Kenyasaurus, a new eosuchian reptile from the Early Triassic of Kenya. Journal of Paleontology 51: 139-149.
  • King, F. W., and R. L. Burke, eds. 1989. Crocodilian, Tuatara, and Turtle Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference
  • Laurin M. 1991. The osteology of a Lower Permian eosuchian from Texas and a review of diapsid phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 101: 59-95.
  • McDiarmid, Roy W., Jonathan A. Campbell, and T'Shaka A. Touré. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. xi + 511
  • Merck J. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the euryapsid reptiles. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17: 65A.
  • Miloslavich P, Díaz JM, Klein E, Alvarado JJ, Díaz C, et al. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011916
  • Motani R., N. Minoura, and T. Ando. 1998. Ichthyosaurian relationships illuminated by new primitive skeletons from Japan. Nature 393: 255-257.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Peabody F. E. 1952. Petrolacosaurus kansensis Lane, a Pennsylvanian reptile from Kansas. Paleontological Contributions. University of Kansas. 1: 1-41.
  • Polis GA (1991) Complex desert food webs: an empirical critique of food web theory. Am Nat 138:123–155
  • Reisz R. R. 1977. Petrolacosaurus, the Oldest Known Diapsid Reptile. Science 196: 1091-1093.
  • Reisz R. R. 1981. A diapsid reptile from the Pennsylvanian of Kansas. University of Kansas Publications of the Museum of Natural History 7: 1-74.
  • Reisz R. R., D. S. Berman, & D. Scott. 1984. The anatomy and relationships of the Lower Permian reptile Araeoscelis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 4: 57-67.
  • Rieppel O. & M. deBraga. 1996. Turtles as diapsid reptiles. Nature 384: 453-455.
  • Rieppel O. 1988. The classification of the Squamata. In: M. J. Benton (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods: 261-293. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Rieppel O. 1993. Euryapsid relationships: A preliminary analysis. Neuen Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie. Abhandlungen 188: 241-264.
  • Rieppel O. 1994. Osteology of Simosaurus gaillardoti and the relationships of stem-group sauropterygia. Fieldiana Geology 1462: 1-85.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
  • Vaughn P. P. 1955. The Permian reptile Araeoscelis restudied. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 113: 305-467.
  • WoRMS (2015). Reptilia. In: Uetz, P. (ed.) (2015) The Reptile Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Wu X.-c., D. B. Brinkman, A. P. Russell, Z.-m. Dong, P. J. Currie, L.-h. Hou, & G.-h. Cui. 1993. Oldest known amphisbaenian from the Upper Cretaceous of Chinese Inner Mongolia. Nature 366: 57-59.
  • de Queiroz K. & J. Gauthier. 1990. Phylogeny as a central principle in taxonomy: Phylogenetic definitions of taxon names. Systematic Zoology 39: 307-322.
  • de Queiroz K. & J. Gauthier. 1992. Phylogenetic taxonomy. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 449-480.
  • de Queiroz K. & J. Gauthier. 1994. Toward a phylogenetic system of biological nomenclature. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 27-31.
  • deBraga M. & R. R. Reisz. 1995. A new diapsid reptile from the uppermost Carboniferous (Stephanian) of Kansas. Palaeontology 38: 199-212.
  • deBraga M. and O. Rieppel. 1997. Reptile phylogeny and the interrelationships of turtles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 281-354.


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