The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Agnarsson, I. 2004. Morphological phylogeny of cobweb spiders and their relatives (Araneae, Araneoidea, Theridiidae). Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 141:447-626.
  • Agnarsson, I. 2004. Morphological phylogeny of cobweb spiders and their relatives (Araneae, Araneoidea, Theridiidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 447-626.
  • Agnarsson, I. 2006. Phylogenetic placement of Echinotheridion (Araneae: Theridiidae) - do male sexual organ removal, emasculation, and sexual cannibalism in Echinotheridion and Tidarren represent evolutionary replicas? Invertebr. Syst. 20:415-429.
  • Arnedo, M. A., J. A. Coddington, I. Agnarsson, and R. G. Gillespie. 2004. From a comb to a tree: Phylogenetic relationships of the comb-footed spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Mol. Phy. Evol. 31:225-245.
  • Bradley, R.A. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Breene, R. G., D. Allen Dean, G. B. Edwards, Blain Hebert, Herbert W. Levi, Gail Manning, et al. 2003. Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. 42
  • Candek, Klemen, Gregoric, Matjaz, Kostanjsek, Rok, Frick, Holger, Kropf, Christian, Kuntner, Matjaz, Miller, Jeremy A., Hoeksema, Bert W. (2013): Targeting a portion of central European spider diversity for permanent preservation. Biodiversity Data Journal 1, 980: 980-980, URL:
  • Deltshev, Christo, Komnenov, Marjan, Blagoev, Gergin, Georgiev, Teodor, Lazarov, Stoyan, Stojkoska, Emilija, Naumova, Maria (2013): Faunistic diversity of spiders (Araneae) in Galichitsa mountain (FYR Macedonia). Biodiversity Data Journal 1, 977: 977-977, URL:
  • Dippenaar-Schoeman, A. S., and R. Jocqué. 1997. African Spiders. An Identification Manual. Plant Protection Research Instute, Handbook No. 9, Pretoria.
  • Foelix, R. F. 1996. Biology of Spiders. Second Edition. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Forster, R. R., N. I. Platnick, and J. A. Coddington. 1990. A proposal and review of the spider family Synotaxidae (Araneae, Araneoidea), with notes on theridiid interrelationships. Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist. 193:1-116.
  • Jocqué, R., and A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2006. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren.
  • Knoflach, B. 2004. Diversity in the copulatory behaviour of comb-footed spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae). Denisia 12:161-256.
  • Levi, H. W. 2005. Theridiidae. Pages 235-243 in Spiders of North America: An Identification Manual (D. Ubick, P. Paquin, C. E. Cushing, and V. Roth, eds.). American Arachnological Society.
  • Levi, H. W., and L. R. Levi. 1962. The genera of the spider family Theridiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 127:1-71.
  • Levi, H.W. 2005. Theridiidae. Pp. 235-243 in D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing, and V. Roth (eds.) Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnological Society.
  • Platnick, N. I. 2014. The world spider catalog, version 14.5. American Museum of Natural History, online at
  • Platnick, N.I. 2006. The World Spider Catalog, Version 7.0.
  • WoRMS (2014). Theridiidae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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