Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimen Records: 224
Specimens with Sequences: 220
Specimens with Barcodes: 214
Species With Barcodes: 123
Public Records: 129
Public Species: 92
Most have a long, thin fragile stipe and are delicate, growing in grasslands on dead moss, dead grass, sand dunes, decayed wood, and dung. Conocybe species generally prefer fertile soils in lawns and pastures and are found worldwide. Conocybes are sometimes called dunce caps or cone heads due to their conical or bell-shaped caps. Species of Conocybe that have a well-developed partial veil are placed in the subgenus Pholiotina.  Similar to Galerina, a Conocybe species can be distinguished microscopically by its cellular cap cuticle, which is filamentous (thread-like) in Galerina. It is easy to confuse Conocybe species for Galerina unless the microscopic nature of the cap cuticle is examined. Conocybes have cap cuticles resembling cobblestones. Conocybes can also be mistaken for species of Bolbitius.
Four species of Conocybe that are known to contain the hallucinogenic compounds psilocin and psilocybin are C. kuehneriana, C. siligineoides, C. cyanopus, and C. smithii. Conocybe siligineoide was used for shamanic purposes by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca.
- Conocybe apala (very common)
- Conocybe cyanopus (psychoactive)
- Conocybe elegans
- Conocybe filaris (deadly)
- Conocybe kuehneriana (psychoactive)
- Conocybe reticulata
- Conocybe rickenii
- Conocybe siligineoides (psychoactive)
- Conocybe smithii (psychoactive)
- Conocybe tenera (type species)
- Conocybe volviradicata
- "Synonymy: Conocybe Fayod". Species Fungorum. CAB International. Retrieved 2014-07-04.
- Rolf Singer
- Guzmán G, Allen JW, Gartz J. (1998). "A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion" (PDF). Annali del Museo civico di Rovereto 14: 198–280.
- Heim R, Wasson RG. (1958). Les champignons hallucinogènes du Mexique: études ethnologiques, taxinomiques, biologiques, physiologiques et chimiques (in French). Paris, France: Muséum national d'histoire naturelle.
- Watling R, Işiloğlu M, Sermenli HB. (2010). "Observations on the Bolbitiaceae 31. Conocybe volviradicata sp. nov.". Mycotaxon 114: 145–9. doi:10.5248/114.145.
|gills on hymenium|
|cap is conical|
hymenium is adnexedor free
|stipe is bare|
spore print is brownto reddish-brown
|ecology is saprotrophic|
Conocybe apala is a basidiomycete fungus and a member of Conocybe. It is a fairly common fungus, both in North America and Europe, found growing among short green grass. Until recently, the species was also commonly called Conocybe lactea or Conocybe albipes and is colloquially known as the White Dunce Cap . Other common synonyms such as Bolbitius lacteus J.B.E. Lange 1940 and Bolbitius albipes G.H. Otth 1871, place the fungus in the genus Bolbitius.
Easily missable due to their very small size, C. apala fruit bodies are otherwise quite easy to identify. The cap has a pale cream to silvery-white colour and may sometimes have a darker yellow to brown coloration towards the central umbo. Its trademark hood-shaped conical cap expands with age and may flatten out, the surface being marked by minute radiating ridges. The cap can be up to 3 cm in diameter. The gills may be visible through the thin cap and these are coloured rust or cinnamon brown and quite dense. They are adnexed or free and release brown to reddish-brown elliptical spores producing a spore print of the same colour. The stem is cap-coloured, elongated, thin, hollow and more or less equal along its length with a height up to 11 cm and diameter 0.1 to 0.3 cm. It can bear minuscule striations or hairs. The flesh of C. apala has no discernible taste or smell.
It must be stressed that all parts of this small, light fungus are extremely delicate and fragile. The slender stem enables the mushroom to compete with vegetation for access to air currents for spore dispersal.
C. apala is a saprobe found in areas with rich soil and short grass such as pastures, playing fields, lawns, meadows as well as rotting manured straw, fruiting single or sparingly few ephemeral bodies. It is commonly found fruiting during humid, rainy weather with generally overcast skies. It will appear on sunny mornings while there is dew but will not persist once it evaporates. In most cases, by midday the delicate fruiting bodies shrivel, dry and fade from sight. C.apala's fruiting season begins in spring and ends in autumn. It is distributed across Europe and North America.
C. apala does not bear a distinctive taste or smell. While it is widely quoted as inedible and worthless due to its small size and mass, it is suspect for toxicity according to at least one author. Other members of the Conocybe genus, like Conocybe filaris, are toxic.
- Index Fungorum - Names Record
- "Conocybe albipes at Mushroom Expert". Mushroom Expert. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
- M. Jordan (1995). The Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain and Europe. David & Charles. p. 249. ISBN 0-7153-0129-2.
- "Conocybe lactea at Rogers Mushrooms". Rogers Mushrooms. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
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