Ecology

Associations

Fungus / gall
larva of Diptera causes galls on fruitbody of Conocybe

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:224Public Records:129
Specimens with Sequences:202Public Species:92
Specimens with Barcodes:197Public BINs:0
Species:124         
Species With Barcodes:114         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Conocybe

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Wikipedia

Conocybe

The genus Conocybe is a genus of mushrooms with Conocybe tenera as the type species and at least 243 other species. There are at least 50 different species in North America.

Most have a long, thin fragile stem and are delicate, growing in grasslands on dead moss, dead grass, sand dunes, decayed wood, and dung. Conocybe species generally prefer fertile soils in lawns and pastures and are found worldwide. Conocybes are sometimes called dunce caps or cone heads due to their conical or bell-shaped caps. Species of Conocybe which have a well-developed partial veil are placed in the subgenus Pholiotina. [1] Similar to Galerina, a Conocybe species can be distinguished microscopically by its cellular cap cuticle which is filamentous (thread-like) in Galerina. It is easy to confuse Conocybe species for Galerina unless the microscopic nature of the cap cuticle is examined. Conocybes have cap cuticles resembling cobblestones. Conocybes can also be mistaken for species of Bolbitius.

Four species of Conocybe that are known to contain psilocin and psilocybin are Conocybe kuehneriana, Conocybe siligineoides, Conocybe cyanopus, and Conocybe smithii. Conocybe siligineoides was used for shamanic purposes by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca. [2]

Conocybe filaris is a common lawn mushroom which contains the same deadly toxins as the death cap.

Conocybe comes from the Greek cono meaning cone and cybe meaning head.

Selected species list[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rolf Singer
  2. ^ [Heim and Wasson (1958)]
  3. ^ Watling R, Işiloğlu M, Sermenli HB. (2010). "Observations on the Bolbitiaceae 31. Conocybe volviradicata sp. nov.". Mycotaxon 114: 145–9. doi:10.5248/114.145. 
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Conocybe apala

Conocybe apala
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is conical

hymenium is adnexed

or free
stipe is bare

spore print is brown

to reddish-brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: inedible

Conocybe apala is a basidiomycete fungus and a member of Conocybe. It is a fairly common fungus, both in North America and Europe, found growing among short green grass. Until recently, the species was also commonly called Conocybe lactea or Conocybe albipes and is colloquially known as the White Dunce Cap .[1] Other common synonyms such as Bolbitius lacteus J.B.E. Lange 1940 and Bolbitius albipes G.H. Otth 1871, place the fungus in the genus Bolbitius.

Appearance[edit]

Easily missable due to their very small size, C. apala fruitbodies are otherwise quite easy to identify. The cap has a pale cream to silvery-white colour and may sometimes have a darker yellow to brown coloration towards the central umbo. Its trademark hood-shaped conical cap expands with age and may flatten out, the surface being marked by minute radiating ridges. The cap can be up to 3 cm in diameter. The gills may be visible through the thin cap and these are coloured rust or cinnamon brown and quite dense. They are adnexed or free and release brown to reddish-brown elliptical spores producing a spore print of the same colour. The stem is cap-coloured, elongated, thin, hollow and more or less equal along its length with a height up to 11 cm and diameter 0.1 to 0.3 cm.[2][3] It can bear minuscule striations or hairs. The flesh of C. apala has no discernible taste or smell.

It must be stressed that all parts of this small, light fungus are extremely delicate and fragile. The slender stem enables the mushroom to compete with vegetation for access to air currents for spore dispersal.

Habitat[edit]

C. apala is a saprobe found in areas with rich soil and short grass such as pastures, playing fields, lawns, meadows as well as rotting manured straw, fruiting single or sparingly few ephemeral bodies. It is commonly found fruiting during humid, rainy weather with generally overcast skies. It will appear on sunny mornings while there is dew but will not persist once it evaporates. In most cases, by midday the delicate fruiting bodies shrivel, dry and fade from sight. C.apala's fruiting season begins in spring and ends in autumn.[2] It is distributed across Europe and North America.[4]

Edibility[edit]

C. apala does not bear a distinctive taste or smell. While it is widely quoted as inedible and worthless[2][3] due to its small size and mass, it is suspect for toxicity according to at least one author.[4] Other members of the Conocybe genus, like Conocybe filaris, are toxic.

External links and resources[edit]

  1. ^ Index Fungorum - Names Record
  2. ^ a b c "Conocybe albipes at Mushroom Expert". Mushroom Expert. Retrieved July 16, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b M. Jordan (1995). The Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain and Europe. David & Charles. p. 249. ISBN 0-7153-0129-2. 
  4. ^ a b "Conocybe lactea at Rogers Mushrooms". Rogers Mushrooms. Retrieved July 16, 2009. 
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