Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

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Wikipedia

Gymnopilus

Gymnopilus is a genus of gilled mushrooms within the fungal family Strophariaceae containing about 200[1] rusty-orange spored mushroom species formerly divided among Pholiota and the defunct genus Flammula. The fruiting body is typically reddish brown to rusty orange to yellow, medium to large, often with a well-developed veil. Most members of Gymnopilus grow on wood but at times may appear terrestrial if the wood is buried or decomposed. Members of Pholiota and Cortinarius are easy to confuse with Gymnopilus. Pholiota can be distinguished by its viscid cap and duller (brown to cinnamon brown) spores, and Cortinarius grows on the ground. Beginners can confuse Gymnopilus with Galerina, which contains deadly poisonous species.

The Gymnopilus genus has over 200 species worldwide.[2]

The name means naked pileus.

Psychoactive species[edit]

14 members of Gymnopilus contain psilocybin,[3] although their bitter taste often deters recreational users. These species include G. aeruginosus, G. braendlei, G. cyanopalmicola,[4] G. intermedius, G. junonius, G. luteofolius, G. luteoviridis, G. luteus, G. purpuratus,[4] G. subearlei,[4] G. subpurpuratus,[4] Gymnopilus validipes and Gymnopilus viridans.[5] Subspecies of G. junonius from Japan are reported to contain psilocybin, while some western North American members are inactive.[6]

Several species of Gymnopilus contain bis-noryangonin [4-hydroxy-6-(4-hydrostyryl)-2-pyrone] and hispidine [4-hydroxy-6-(3,4-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone], which are closely related to the alpha-pyrones found in kava.[7]

Phylogenetics[edit]

A 2003 phylogenetics study identified five well-supported clades within Gymnopilus:[2]

  1. the spectabilis-imperialis group
  2. nevadensis-penetrans group
  3. a clade formed by G. underwoodii, G. validipes and G. cf. flavidellus
  4. aeruginosus-luteofolius group
  5. lepidotus-subearlei group

Although the genus Gymnopilus was found to be monophyletic, the phylogenetically related groups do not support the traditional infrageneric classifications based on morphology.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. (10th ed.). Wallingford: CABI. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. 
  2. ^ a b Guzmán-Dávalos, Laura; Mueller, Gregory M; Cifuentes, Joaquín; Miller, Andrew N; Santerre, Anne (2003). "Traditional infrageneric classification of Gymnopilus is not supported by ribosomal DNA sequence data" (PDF). Mycologia 95 (6): 1204–14. doi:10.2307/3761920. PMID 21149021. 
  3. ^ Guzmán, Gastón; Allen, John W.; Gartz, Jochen (1998). "A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion". Ann. Mus. civ. Rovereto 14: 189. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Guzmán-Dávalos L. (2006). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 8 (3): 289–293. ISSN 1521-9437. 
  5. ^ Gymnopilus Chemistry, Entheogen review, Vol VII No. 3
  6. ^ http://www.svims.ca/ff0608.pdf
  7. ^ G. M. Hatfield, L. R. Brady (1969). "Occurrence of bis-noryangonin in Gymnopilus spectabilis". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 58 (10): 1298–99. doi:10.1002/jps.2600581039. PMID 5388695. 
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Gymnopilus liquiritiae


Gymnopilus liquiritiae
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is convex

hymenium is adnexed

or adnate
stipe is bare
spore print is yellow-orange
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: psychoactive

Gymnopilus liquiritiae is a mushroom in the Cortinariaceae family. The mushroom is widely distributed and grows in dense clusters on dead conifer wood. It has a rusty orange spore print, a bitter taste, and does not contain the hallucinogen psilocybin.[1] One of its key distinguishing features is the lack of partial veil.

Contents

Description

  • Cap: 2 – 8 cm in diameter; initially convex, becoming nearly plane to nearly umbonate in age, dry, smooth, rusty brown to orange color, margin even, at length striatulate (with marked by small lines, grooves or ridges), cracking slightly in age, flesh pale yellow to pale orange.
  • Gills: Close to crowded; broad, edges fimbriate, yellowish or pale orange, eventually orange; sometimes with reddish brown spots.
  • Spore Print: Rusty brown.
  • Stipe: (1)3 – 7 cm long; (2)3 — 8(10) mm thick; more or less equal, or tapering in either direction; sometimes slightly, even to off-center; smooth or finely fibrous; whitish to pale orange; yellowish or rusty colored mycelium at the base of the stalk. No partial veil.
  • Taste: Bitter
  • Odor: Mild or sometimes like raw potatoes
  • Microscopic features: Spores 7 — 8.5(10) x 4 — 5.5 µm, elliptical; pleurocystidia (inconspicuous), cheilocystidia, pileocystidia and caulocystidia present.[2]

Habitat and formation

Gymnopilus liquiritiae is a widely distributed wood rotting mushroom, subcaespitose on conifer, seems to prefer dead hardwood in the southern regions.

See also

References

  1. ^ Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0. 
  2. ^ "A Trial Key to GYMNOPILUS in the Pacific Northwest". Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
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List of Gymnopilus species

This is a list of species in the Gymnopilus genus of agaric fungi. There are about 200 species in the widespread genus.[1]

References

  1. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  2. ^ Moser MM, Ladurner H, Peintner U, Kirchmair M. (2008). "Gymnopilus turficola (Agaricales), a new species from sub-arctic palsa mires and its phylogenetic relationship based on ITS sequences". Nordic Journal of Botany 21 (3): 321–8. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.2001.tb00773.x.
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