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 Life habit: lichenized; Thallus: crustose, superficial or immersed, farinose, granular, verrucose or squamulose; surface: gray, greenish gray, golden yellow, brownish, or bright yellow-green; photobiont: primary one a species Dictyochloropsis, Stichococcus, Trentepohlia or Trebouxia, secondary one absent; Ascomata: apothecial, with short to long stalk; stalk: consisting of periclinally arranged brown hyphae; capitulum: globose to obconical; thalline exciple: absent; proper exciple: +well developed, formed by periclinally arranged, +intertwined hyphae and continuous with stalk tissue; hypothecium: medium brown, with convex to flat upper surface; mazaedium: well developed, pale brown to medium brown; paraphyses: sparingly branched, continuing to grow into the ascospore mass; asci: cylindrical, ellipsoid or irregular, dissolving at an early stage, formed from ascogenous hyphae with or without croziers, either singly or in chains; ascospores: simple or rarely 1-5-septate, brown to pale brown, forming a dry brown spore mass, globose or ellipsoid-cylindrical, 2.5-9 x 2.5-7.5 µm; wall: +thick, smooth or with an ornamentation of irregular cracks; Conidiomata: forming several types: both coelomycetous (pycnidial), spherical with apical ostiole, or hyphomcetous, simple, Phialophora-like; pycnidium wall: thin and consisting of one or a few layers of radially arranged cells; wall-forming cells: with a thick pigmented layer at their distal surface; conidiogenous cells: simple, ellipsoid to cylindrical; conidia: acrogenous, hyaline, one-celled, 2-3 x 1 µm; Secondary metabolites: pulvinic acid derivatives occur as a pruina and more rarely within the thallus, ß-orcinol depsides and pseudoplacodiolic acid; Substrate: mainly on bark and wood, rarely on soil and rocks, mostly in very sheltered situations with high humidity and low light levels; Geography: cosmopolitan, mostly cool to temperate.; Notes: See Tibell (1999) for fuller description of the genus. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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