Overview

Brief Summary

The Callitrichidae (previously called called Hapalidae/Hapalinae)[1] is a family of New World monkeys, including marmosets and tamarins. At times this group of animals has been regarded as a subfamily, called Callitrichinae, of the family Cebidae.[2]

This taxon was traditionally thought to be a primitive lineage, from which all the larger bodied platyrrhines evolved.[3] However, some works argue that callitrichids are actually a dwarfed lineage.[4][5] Ancestral stem-callitrichids would likely have been a "normal" sized ceboids that was dwarfed through evolutionary time. This may exemplify a rare example of insular dwarfing in a mainland context, with the "islands" being formed by biogeographic barriers during arid climatic periods when forest distribution became patchy, and/or by the extensive river networks in the Amazon Basin.[4] 

All callitrichids are arboreal. They are the smallest of the simian primates. They eat insects, fruit, and the sap or gum from trees; occasionally they will take small vertebrates. The marmosets rely quite heavily on exudates, with some species (e.g. Callithrix jacchus and Cebuella pygmaea) considered obligate exudativores.[6]

Callitrichids typically live in small, territorial groups of about 5 or 6 unrelated animals, primarily adults. The groups are multimale-multifemale, and the number of adults of each sex is highly variable.[7] Their social organization is unique among primates and is called "cooperative polyandry". In this communal breeding system, only one female is reproductively active in a group. Females may mate with more than one male. Care for the young of a group's breeding female is principally provided by adult males, an organization referred to as a "communal breeding system". There is a correlation between the number of males in a group and the number of surviving young.[7,8]

Callitrichids are the only primate group that regularly produce twins, which constitute over 80% of births in species that have been studied. Unlike other male primates, male callitrichids generally provide as much parental care as females. Parental duties may include carrying, protecting, feeding, comforting, and engaging in play behavior with offspring. Males generally provide care for the young. For example, in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), males have been found to demonstrate a greater involvement in caregiving than females, particularly paternal males.[9] Typical social groups seem to constitute breeding groups, with several previous offspring living in the group and providing significant help in rearing the young.

  • [1] Groves, C.P. (2001). Primate taxonomy. pp. 126-127. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
  • [2] Groves, C.P. (2005). "Order Primates". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 129. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.
  • [3] Hershkovitz, P. (1977). Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to the Primates. University of Chicago.
  • [4] Ford, S. M. (1980). "Callitrichids as phyletic dwarfs, and the place of the Callitrichidae in Platyrrhini". Primates 21(1):31–43. doi:10.1007/BF02383822.
  • [5] Naish, Darren. Marmosets and tamarins: dwarfed monkeys of the South American tropics. Scientific American. November 27, 2012.
  • [6] Harrison, M. L.; Tardif, S. D. (1994). "Social implications of gummivory in marmosets". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95 (4): 399–408.doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330950404
  • [7] Sussman, R.W and Garber, P.A. (1986). A new interpretation of the social organization and mating system of the Callitrichidae. International Journal of Primatology. 8(1):73-92.
  • [8]Sussman, R.W. (2003). "Chapter 1: Ecology: General Principles". Primate Ecology and Social Structure. p. 29. Pearson Custom Publishing.
  • [9] Cleveland and Snowdon. (1984). Social development during the first twenty weeks in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus o. oedipus). Animal Behaviour. 32(2):432-444.
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Callitrichidae

The Callitrichidae (also called Arctopitheci or Hapalidae) is a family of New World monkeys, including marmosets and tamarins. At times, this group of animals has been regarded as a subfamily, called Callitrichinae, of the family Cebidae.

This taxon was traditionally thought to be a primitive lineage, from which all the larger bodied platyrrhines evolved.[3] However, some works argue that callitrichids are actually a dwarfed lineage.[4][5]

Ancestral stem-callitrichids would likely have been "normal" sized ceboids that were dwarfed through evolutionary time. This may exemplify a rare example of insular dwarfing in a mainland context, with the "islands" being formed by biogeographic barriers during arid climatic periods when forest distribution became patchy, and/or by the extensive river networks in the Amazon Basin.[4]

All callitrichids are arboreal. They are the smallest of the simian primates. They eat insects, fruit, and the sap or gum from trees; occasionally they will take small vertebrates. The marmosets rely quite heavily on exudates, with some species (e.g. Callithrix jacchus and Cebuella pygmaea) considered obligate exudativores.[6]

Callitrichids typically live in small, territorial groups of about five or six animals. Their social organization is unique among primates and is called a "cooperative polyandrous group". This communal breeding system involves groups of multiple males and females, but only one female is reproductively active. Females mate with more than one male and everyone shares the responsibility of carrying the offspring.[7]

They are the only primate group that regularly produces twins, which constitute over 80% of births in species that have been studied. Unlike other male primates, male callitrichids generally provide as much parental care as females. Parental duties may include carrying, protecting, feeding, comforting, and even engaging in play behavior with offspring. In some cases, such as in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), males, particularly those that are paternal, will even show a greater involvement in caregiving than females.[8] The typical social structure seems to constitute a breeding group, with several of their previous offspring living in the group and providing significant help in rearing the young.

Species list[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 129–136. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Rylands AB and Mittermeier RA (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB. South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 23–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6. 
  3. ^ Hershkovitz, P. Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to the Primates. University of Chicago 1977.
  4. ^ a b Ford, S. M. (1980-01-01). "Callitrichids as phyletic dwarfs, and the place of the Callitrichidae in Platyrrhini". Primates 21 (1): 31–43. doi:10.1007/BF02383822. ISSN 0032-8332. 
  5. ^ Naish, Darren. Marmosets and tamarins: dwarfed monkeys of the South American tropics. Scientific American November 27, 2012
  6. ^ Harrison, M. L.; Tardif, S. D. (1994). "Social implications of gummivory in marmosets". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95 (4): 399–408. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330950404. PMID 7864061.  edit
  7. ^ Sussman, R.W. (2003). "Chapter 1: Ecology: General Principles". Primate Ecology and Social Structure. Pearson Custom Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-536-74363-3. 
  8. ^ Cleveland and Snowdon. Social development during the first twenty weeks in the cotton-top tamarin ( Saguinus o. oedipus). Animal Behaviour (1984) vol. 32 (2) pp. 432-444
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Marmoset

The marmosets /ˈmɑrmɵsɛt/ are 22 New World monkey species of the genera Callithrix, Cebuella, Callibella, and Mico. All four genera are part of the biological family Callitrichidae. The term marmoset is also used in reference to the Goeldi's marmoset, Callimico goeldii, which is closely related.

Most marmosets are about 20 centimetres (8 in) long. Relative to other monkeys, they show some apparently primitive features: they have claws rather than nails, and tactile hairs on their wrists. They lack wisdom teeth, and their brain layout seems to be relatively primitive. Their body temperature is unusually variable, changing by up to 4 °C (7 °F) in a day.[3] Marmosets are native to South America and have been found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru.[4] They have also been spotted in Central America, and Mexico.[5] They are also raised in captivity as pets.

According to recent research, marmosets exhibit germline chimerism, which is not known to occur in nature in any other primates than callitrichids.[6] 95% of Marmoset fraternal twins trade blood through chorionic fusions, making them hematopoietic chimeras.[7][8]

Species list[edit]

Behavior[edit]

Marmosets are highly active, living in the upper canopy of forest trees, and feeding on insects, fruit and leaves. They have long lower incisors, which allow them to chew holes in tree trunks and branches to harvest the gum inside; some species are specialised feeders on gum.[citation needed]

Marmosets live in family groups of three to 15, consisting of one to two breeding females, an unrelated male, their offspring and occasionally extended family members and unrelated individuals. Their mating systems are highly variable and can include monogamy, polygyny and occasionally polyandry. In most species, fraternal twins are usually born, but triplets are not unknown. Like other callitrichines, marmosets are characterized by a high degree of cooperative care of the young and some food sharing and tolerated theft. Adult males, females other than the mother, and older offspring, participate in carrying infants. Most groups scent mark and defend the edges of their ranges, but it is unclear if they are truly territorial, as group home ranges greatly overlap.

The favorite food of marmosets is carbohydrate-rich tree sap, which they reach by gnawing holes in trunks. Their territories are centered on the trees that they regularly exploit in this way. The smaller marmosets venture into the very top of forest canopies to hunt insects that are abundant there.[9]

Human cultural references[edit]

Callithrix comes from Ancient Greek and means "beautiful fur". Marmoset, from the French marmouset, is of uncertain etymology.

The monkey is mentioned in Shakespeare's Tempest, when Caliban says he will instruct his new master Stephano "how to snare the nimble marmoset" (for eating), on the no-man island where the play takes place (Act 2, Scene 2).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 129–133. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Rylands AB and Mittermeier RA (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB. South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 23–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6. 
  3. ^ Stafford, S.G. (1999). "Thermoregulatory and Endocrine Adaptations of Small Body Size in Primates". Kent State University Dissertation, QP 135.S73, 1999.
  4. ^ [Primate Info Net, Callithrix Factsheet, University of Wisconsin, Madison.]
  5. ^ http://anthro.palomar.edu/primate/prim_5.htm
  6. ^ Ross, C.N., French, J.A., and Ortí, G. (2007). "Germ-line chimerism and paternal care in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (15): 6278. doi:10.1073/pnas.0607426104. PMC 1851065. PMID 17389380. 
  7. ^ Masahito Tachibana, Michelle Sparman and Shoukhrat Mitalipov (January 2012). "Generation of Chimeric Rhesus Monkeys". cell. 
  8. ^ Gengozian, N.; Batson, JS; Eide, P. (1964). "Hematologic and Cytogenetic Evidence for Hematopoietic Chimerism in the Marmoset, Tamarinus Nigricollis". Cytogenetics 10: 384–393. 
  9. ^ http://anthro.palomar.edu/primate/prim_5.htm
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