The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • [10] Chivers, D.J. (1976). Communication within and between family groups of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). Behavior. 57:116-135.
  • [11] Farabaugh, S. M. (1982). The ecological and social significance of duetting. In D. E. Kroodsma, E. H. Miller and H. Ouellet (Eds.), Acoustic communication in birds (pp. 85-124). New York and London: Academic Press
  • [1] Groves, C.P. (2005). "Order Primates". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 178. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.
  • [2] IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 11 December 2013.
  • [3] IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 11 December 2013.
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  • [4] Channon, A.J., Usherwood, J.R., Crompton, R.H., Gunther, M.M., & Vereecke, E.E. (2012). The extraordinary athletic performance of leaping gibbons. Biol. Lett. 8(1):46-49.
  • [5] Brockelman, W.Y and Reichard, U. (1998). Dispersal, pair formation and social structure in gibbons (Hylobates lar). Behav Ecol Sociobiol. 42:329-339.
  • [6] Reichard, U.H., Ganpanakngan, M., and Barelli, C. (2012).Chapter 11: White-handed gibbons of Khao Yai: Social flexibility, complex reproductive strategies, and a slow life history. pp. 237-258. In Long-term field studies of primates. Kappeler, P.M and Watts, D.P., eds. Springer.
  • [7] Haimoff, E.H. and Gittins, S.P. (1985). Individuality in the songs of wild agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis) of Peninsular Malaysia. American Journal of Primatology. 8(3):239-247.
  • [8] Geissmann, T. (2000). Gibbon songs and human music from an evolutionary perspective. In: The origins of music. Wallin, N.; Merker, B. & Brown, S. (eds.), pp. 103-123, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23206-5.
  • [9]Geissmann, T. (2001). Duet-splitting and the evolution of gibbon songs. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 77(01):57-76.


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