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 Life habit: lichenized; Thallus: crustose or placodioid, monophyllus sometimes dispersed into elements; upper surface: yellow or orange, pruinose, with or without schizidia; schizidia: scaly or bullate; upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous covered by a thick epinecral layer of crystals and dead algal cells; medulla: white, composed of loosely arranged hyphae; photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid green alga, secondary one absent; lower cortex: absent; lower surface: gelatinized, compressed hyhae attach the lichen directly to the substrate; Ascomata: apothecial, lecanorine, sessile; disc: flat in old ones becoming convex, occasionally concave; epithymenium: yellow, orange to pale; hymenium: hyaline; paraphyses: simple to slightly branched at the tips, very rarely anastomosing, apices clavate; hypothecium: colorless; asci: clavate, with a well developed amyloid cap, Teloschistes-type, 8- spored; ascospores: hyaline, simple or 1-septate, ellipsoid, with oil droplets; Conidiomata: pycnidial, unilocular or plurilocular; conidiophores branched or pseudoparenchymatously arranged; conidiogenous cells: terminally or intercalary arranged, acrogenous or pleurogenous, with "bayonet-like" projections; conidia: hyaline, simple, oblong; Secondary metabolites: anthraquinone pigments; Geography: worldwide with highest diversity in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly temperate; Substrate: calcareous soil, sometimes overgrowing mosses and other lichens.; Note: Fulgensia with simple or 1-septate spores differs from the Caloplaca with its polarilocular spores. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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