Overview

Brief Summary

Description

 Life habit: lichenized; Thallus: composed of primary (basal, horizontal) and secondary (erect) parts; cortex: dense, composed of ± vertically-oriented hyphae; medulla: usually 2-layered; the outer layer: white, composed of ± loose hyphae, containing algal glomerules; the inner layer: hyaline or white, cartilaginous, with conglutinate hyphae surrounding the central canal; Primary thallus: composed of basal squamules, closely adpressed to the substrate, or ascending to erect, rounded to elongate, entire or variously indented, sorediate or esorediate, sometimes persistent, occasionally dominant; upper surface: corticated; lower surface: composed of ecorticate layer of hyphae, hyphae roughly parallel-oriented, radiating in a flabelliform pattern from the basal portio, which is generally attached to the substrate; Secondary thallus: consisting of hollow to rarely solid podetia, growing from upper surface or margins of primary thallus, blunt, pointed, or cup-forming, simple or branched; branch axils: closed or perforate; perforations: occasionally enlarging (forming funnel-like structures often called "open cups") and deforming; surface: variably corticate to ecorticate, generally composed of some combination of continuous cortex, cortical granules, verruculae, soredia, and squamules; photobiont: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent; Ascomata: lecideine apothecia, borne at apices of podetia, on cup rims, at branch apices, or rarely sessile on basal squamules; discs: red, pale or dark brown, darkening with age and sometimes blackening; asci: cylindrical to elongate-clavate; apex: Porpidia type, with strongly amyloid (I+ blue) apical dome, including very narrow weakly amyloid central zone surrounded by a tube-like, strongly amyloid zone; wall: nonamyloid except for outer layer; 8-spored; ascospores: biseriate, ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, simple to rarely one-septate, hyaline, oblong or ovoid, 6-16 (-24) x 2-6 micro meter; Conidiomata: pycnidial, borne at apices of podetia, on cup rims, at branch apices, or on basal squamules, infrequently arising laterally on podetia, red, brown or carbonaceous to blue-black, cylindrical to urn-like (ampullaceous), short-stalked or sessile, often constricted at base; containing hyaline or red gelatin; conidia: sickle-shaped, rarely straight, hyaline, 3-10 (-14) x 0.5-1 micro meter; Secondary metabolites: depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans and derivatives (incl. usnic acids), terpenoids, aliphatic acids, and quinone pigments; Geography: arctic regions to Antarctica, tundra to tropical forests but widely absent from arid regions; Substrate: on soil, especially acidic humus and sand, rotting wood, tree bases and trunks, mossy or bare rocks.; Notes: It is characterized by punctiform pseudocyphellae on upper surface, perforate apothecia with large, ellipsoid spores, and bifusiform conidia. 
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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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Physical Description

Type Information

Isolectotype for Cladina ciliata (Striton) Trass f. ciliata
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. R. Abbayes
Year Collected: 1936
Locality: Saint-Laurent-sur-Oust, Morbihan., France, Europe
  • Isolectotype: Abbayes, H. R. 1936. Bull. Soc. Sci. Bretagne. 13: 125.; Ahti, T. T. 1961. Ann. Soc. Zool. Bot. Fenn. "Vanamo". 32 (1): 61.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Associations

Acremonium lichenicola is associated with Cladonia

Lichen / associate
Acremonium rhabdosporum is associated with Cladonia

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Lichen / parasite
stalked apothecium of Chaenothecopsis parasitaster parasitises squamule of Cladonia

Plant / epiphyte
Cladonia grows on trunk of Trees with bark of low pH

Lichen / kleptoparasite
apothecium of Diploschistes muscorum kleptoparasitises photobiont of Cladonia

Lichen / parasite
pycnidium of Lichenoconium coelomycetous anamorph of Lichenoconium pyxidatae parasitises discoloured brownish podetium of Cladonia

Lichen / parasite
perithecium of Lichenosticta alcicornaria parasitises thallus of Cladonia

Lichen / parasite
apothecium of Phaeopyxis punctum parasitises squamule of Cladonia

Lichen / parasite
perithecium of Roselliniella cladoniae parasitises squamule of Cladonia

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 505
Specimens with Sequences: 463
Specimens with Barcodes: 459
Species: 104
Species With Barcodes: 98
Public Records: 412
Public Species: 84
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Cladonia

Cladonia (cup lichen) is a genus of moss-like lichens in the family Cladoniaceae. They are the primary food source for reindeer and caribou. Cladonia species are of economic importance to reindeer-herders, such as the Sami in Scandinavia or the Nenets in Russia. Antibiotic compounds are extracted from some species to create antibiotic cream. The light green species Cladonia stellaris is used in flower decorations.

Although the phylogeny of the genus Cladonia is still under investigation, two main morphological groups are commonly differentiated by taxonomists: the Cladonia morpho-type and the Cladina morpho-type. The Cladonia morpho-type has many more species, and is generally described as a group of squamulose (grow from squamules), cup-bearing lichens. The Cladina morpho-types are often referred to as forage lichens, mat-forming lichens, or reindeer lichens (due to their importance as caribou winter forage).

Cladonia perforata ("perforate cladonia") is one of two on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and it should never be collected. It exists only in a few small populations in Florida.

Several Cladonia species grow on sand dunes. The presence, and luxuriant carpet-like growth, of Cladonia species is one of the defining characters of grey dune, a priority habitat for conservation under the E.U. Habitats Directive.

Cladonia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Chionodes continuella.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Further references[edit]

Anderson, R. 2009. Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J.R. Laundon (Lecanorales: Cladoniaceae) re-discovered in Co. Down. Ir. Nat. J. 30: 146.

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