Overview

Brief Summary

Description

 Life habit: lichenized; Thallus: foliose, ± circular, lobate; lobes: narrow, sublinear, contiguous, rarely imbricate; apices: truncate, eciliate; upper surface: gray, plane to foveolate, shiny or dull, strongly white, simple or reticulate maculae, pruinose or not; with or without isidia, soralia, or lobules; pseudocyphellae common, frequently elongated and irregularly effigurate (developing from the maculae); upper cortex: non-pored epicortex, prosoplechtenchymatous; medulla: white, loosely packed; cell walls containing isolichenan; photobionts: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent; lower surface: black, attached by simple, furcated or squarrose, black rhizines; cyphellae, pseudocyphellae and tomentum absent; Ascomata: apothecial, laminal on thallus, orbicular, cup-shaped, sessile to pedicellate; margin: prominent with thalloid rim; disc: usually pale to dark brown, imperforate; exciple: gray or hyaline, epithecium: brown or brownish yellow; hypothecium: hyaline; asci: lecanoral, wall layers thickened; apex: amyloid, with wide, divergent axial body; c. 8-spored; ascospores: simple, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, 11-15 x 6-9 µm but larger in many Asian species; wall thin, hyaline, not amyloid; Conidiomata: absent or present, pycnidia laminal or marginal, immersed or emergent sessile; conidia: cylindrical, rarely bifusiform, 5-8 x 1 µm; Secondary metabolites: upper cortex atranorin and chloroatranorin (rarely usnic acid accessory); medulla some combination of orcinol depsides or depsidones, ß-orcinol depsides or depsidones or aliphatic acids; Geography: predominately temperate/boreal to arctic/alpine; Substrate: mostly bark, non-calciferous rock, mosses or humus. 
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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Lichen / parasite
apothecium of Abrothallus parmeliarum parasitises thallus of Parmelia

Lichen / associate
Loricula elegantula is associated with Parmelia
Other: major host/prey

Lichen / pathogen
colony of Refractohilum anamorph of Refractohilum achromaticum infects and damages thallus of Parmelia

Lichen / parasite
pycnidium of Vouauxiomyces coelomycetous anamorph of Vouauxiomyces santessonii parasitises thallus of Parmelia

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:80Public Records:55
Specimens with Sequences:69Public Species:16
Specimens with Barcodes:62Public BINs:0
Species:18         
Species With Barcodes:15         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Parmelia

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Parmelia (lichen)

This article is about the genus of lichen Parmelia, for other uses see Parmelia (disambiguation).

Parmelia is a large genus of lichenized fungus with a global distribution, extending from the Arctic[1] to the Antarctic continent[2][3] but concentrated in temperate regions.[4] 125 species have been recorded on the Indian sub-continent.[5] Depending on whether the circumscription of the genus is considered in the narrow sense (sensu strico) or the broad sense (sensu lato), there are between 50 to 1322 species world wide.[4] It is a foliaceous lichen, resembling a leaf in shape. In recent years, the genus Parmelia has been divided into a number of smaller genera according to thallus morphology.

Description and ecology[edit]

In general, Parmelia have a dark lower side with rhizines ('rootlets') which attach the lichen to its substrate. The upper side may be several colours - grey, yellow, brown - and may have reproductive organs on it. These may be apothecia (spore producing bodies), isidia or soralia (both vegetative structures). In between these two layers is the medulla which contains the algal component of the lichen.

Permelia peralta is called Dagad (north India), patthar ke phool (Hindi), kallu hoovu (Kannada), kallu pachi (Telugu), kal pasi (Tamil). It is used as a spice that provides a distinct, unmistakable flavor.

Parmelia lichens are food for the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera, such as the bagworm moth Taleporia tubulosa.

Selected species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Skult H (1985) A New Subspecies of Parmelia omphalodes Ascomycetes Described from the Arctic. Annales Botanici Fennici 22, 201-6.
  2. ^ D.C. Lindsay (1973) Notes on Antarctic lichens: IV. The genera Cetraria Hoffm., Hypogymnia (Nyl.) Nyl., Menegazzia Massal, Parmelia Ach. and Platismatia Culb. et Culb. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 36, 105-114.
  3. ^ J. Hooker (1847) The Botany of the Antarctic voyage. Vol. 1. Flora Antarctica. Part 2 Botany of Fuegia, the Falklands, Kerguelens land, etc. Reeve Bros., London.
  4. ^ a b Bisby, Guy Richard; Ainsworth, G. C.; Kirk, P. M.; Aptroot, André (2001). Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the fungi / by P. M. Kirk... [et al.]; with the assistance of A. Aptroot... [et al.] Oxon: CAB International. p. 378. ISBN 0-85199-377-X. 
  5. ^ Awasthi D.D. (1976) Lichen genus Parmelia in India. I. Subgenera Parmelia and Amphigymnia. Biological Memoirs (Lichenol. Ser.) 1: 155-229.
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