Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||1,930||Public Records:||734|
|Specimens with Sequences:||1,146||Public Species:||93|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||1,097||Public BINs:||93|
|Species With Barcodes:||110|
New World warbler
- This article refers to the New World wood warbler family of birds, the Parulidae. For the Eurasian species Phylloscopus sibilatrix, see Wood Warbler.
The New World warblers or wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds which make up the family Parulidae and are restricted to the New World. They are not closely related to Old World warblers or to Australian warblers. Most are arboreal, but some, like the Ovenbird and the two waterthrushes, are primarily terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
It is likely that this group originated in northern Central America, where the greatest number of species and diversity between them is found. From there they spread north during the interglacial periods, mainly as migrants, returning to the ancestral region in winter. Two genera, Myioborus and Basileuterus seem to have colonised South America early, perhaps before the two continents were linked, and together constitute most warbler species of that region.
The scientific name for the family, Parulidae, originates from the fact that Linnaeus in 1758 named the Northern Parula as a tit, Parus americanus, and, as taxonomy developed, the genus name was modified first to Parulus and then to Parula. The family name derives from the name for the genus.
All the warblers are fairly small. The smallest species is the Lucy's Warbler (Oreothlypis luciae), at about 6.5 grams and 10.6 cm (4.2 in). Which species is the largest depends upon which are to be included in the family. Traditionally, this was considered to be the Yellow-breasted Chat, at 18.2 cm (7.2 in). Since this may not be a parulid, the Parkesia waterthrushes, the Ovenbird, the Russet-crowned Warbler and Semper's Warbler, all of which can exceed 15 cm (6 in) and 21 grams, might be considered the largest.
The migratory species tend to lay larger clutches of eggs, typically up to six, since the hazards of their journeys mean that many individuals will have only one chance to breed. In contrast, the laying of two eggs is typical for many tropical species, since the chicks can be provided with better care, and the adults are likely to have further opportunities for reproduction.
Many migratory species, particularly those which breed further north, have distinctive male plumage at least in the breeding season, since males need to reclaim territory and advertise for mates each year. This tendency is particularly marked in the large genus Dendroica. In contrast, resident tropical species, which pair for life, show little if any sexual dimorphism. There are of course exceptions. The Parkesia waterthrushes and Ovenbird are strongly migratory, but have identical male and female plumage, whereas the mainly tropical and sedentary yellowthroats are dimorphic. The Granatellus chats also show sexual dimorphism, but due to recent genetic work have been moved into the family Cardinalidae (New World buntings and cardinals).
There are a number of issues in the taxonomy and systematics of the Parulidae.
- The New World warblers are closely related to the tanagers, and some species like the conebills Conirostrum and the Bananaquit have been placed into either group by different authorities. Currently, the conebills are normally placed in Thraupidae and the Bananaquit in its own family.
- Green-tailed Warbler, Yellow-breasted Chat, and White-winged Warbler are other species about which there have been questions as to whether they should be considered as warblers or tanagers. Current data suggest they are neither, but rather, in their own families.
- The Pardusco, Nephelornis oneilli is also of uncertain affinities.
Genera and species
- Genus Parkesia
- Genus Vermivora
- Genus Oreothlypis
- Tennessee Warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina
- Orange-crowned Warbler, Oreothlypis celata
- Nashville Warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla
- Virginia's Warbler, Oreothlypis virginiae
- Colima Warbler, Oreothlypis crissalis
- Lucy's Warbler, Oreothlypis luciae
- Flame-throated Warbler, Oreothlypis gutturalis
- Crescent-chested Warbler, Oreothlypis superciliosa
- Genus Geothlypis
- Kentucky Warbler, Geothlypis formosus
- Mourning Warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia
- MacGillivray's Warbler, Geothlypis tolmiei
- Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Belding's Yellowthroat, Geothlypis beldingi
- Altamira Yellowthroat, Geothlypis flavovelata
- Bahama Yellowthroat, Geothlypis rostrata
- Olive-crowned Yellowthroat, Geothlypis semiflava
- Black-polled Yellowthroat, Geothlypis speciosa
- Masked Yellowthroat, Geothlypis aequinoctialis
- Grey-crowned Yellowthroat, Geothlypis poliocephala
- Hooded Yellowthroat, Geothlypis nelsoni
- Genus Setophaga
- Plumbeous Warbler, Setophaga plumbea
- Elfin Woods Warbler, Setophaga angelae
- Arrowhead Warbler, Setophaga pharetra
- Hooded Warbler, Setophaga citrina
- American Redstart. Setophaga ruticilla
- Kirtland's Warbler, Setophaga kirtlandii
- Cape May Warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Cerulean Warbler, Setophaga cerulea
- Northern Parula, Setophaga americana
- Tropical Parula, Setophaga pitiayumi
- Magnolia Warbler, Setophaga magnolia
- Bay-breasted Warbler, Setophaga castanea
- Blackburnian Warbler, Setophaga fusca
- American Yellow Warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided Warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica
- Blackpoll Warbler, Setophaga striata
- Black-throated Blue Warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Palm Warbler, Setophaga palmarum
- Olive-capped Warbler, Setophaga pityophila
- Pine Warbler, Setophaga pinus'
- Yellow-rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata
- Yellow-throated Warbler, Setophaga dominica
- Bahama Warbler, Setophaga flavescens
- Vitelline Warbler, Setophaga vitellina
- Prairie Warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Adelaide's Warbler, Setophaga adelaidae
- Barbuda Warbler, Setophaga subita
- St. Lucia Warbler, Setophaga delicata
- Grace's Warbler, Setophaga graciae
- Black-throated Gray Warbler, Setophaga nigrescens
- Townsend's Warbler, Setophaga townsendi
- Hermit Warbler, Setophaga occidentalis
- Golden-cheeked Warbler, Setophaga chrysoparia
- Black-throated Green Warbler, Setophaga virens
- Genus Myiothlypis
- Citrine Warbler, Myiothlypis luteoviridis
- Santa Marta Warbler, Myiothlypis basilicus
- White-striped Warbler, Myiothlypis leucophrys
- Flavescent Warbler, Myiothlypis flaveola
- White-browed Warbler, Myiothlypis leucoblephara
- Black-crested Warbler, Myiothlypis nigrocristata
- Pale-legged Warbler, Myiothlypis signata
- Buff-rumped Warbler, Myiothlypis fulvicauda
- Riverbank Warbler, Myiothlypis rivularis
- Two-banded Warbler, Myiothlypis bivittata
- Golden-bellied Warbler, Myiothlypis chrysogaster
- White-lored Warbler, Myiothlypis conspicillatus
- Gray-throated Warbler, Myiothlypis cinereicollis
- Gray-and-gold Warbler, Myiothlypis fraseri
- Russet-crowned Warbler, Myiothlypis coronata
- Genus Basileuterus
- Fan-tailed Warbler, Basileuterus lachrymosus
- Gray-headed Warbler, Basileuterus griseiceps
- Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus
- Three-banded Warbler, Basileuterus trifasciatus
- Rufous-capped Warbler, Basileuterus rufifrons
- Golden-browed Warbler, Basileuterus belli
- Black-cheeked Warbler, Basileuterus melanogenys
- Pirre Warbler, Basileuterus ignotus
- Three-striped Warbler, Basileuterus tristriatus
- Genus Cardellina
- Genus Myioborus (often, less accurately, named as redstarts, but they have conspicuous white, not red, feathers on the tail sides)
- Painted Whitestart, Myioborus pictus
- Slate-throated Whitestart, Myioborus miniatus
- Tepui Whitestart, Myioborus castaneocapillus
- Brown-capped Whitestart, Myioborus brunniceps
- Paria Whitestart, Myioborus pariae
- White-faced Whitestart, Myioborus albifacies
- Guaiquinima Whitestart, Myioborus cardonai
- Collared Whitestart, Myioborus torquatus
- Spectacled Whitestart, Myioborus melanocephalus
- Golden-fronted Whitestart, Myioborus ornatus
- White-fronted Whitestart, Myioborus albifrons
- Yellow-crowned Whitestart, Myioborus flavivertex
The placement of the following species represents an unresolved taxonomic problem. Recent work has shown all of the following species are closely related to the New World warblers and New World blackbirds.
- Black-crowned Palm-Tanager, Phaenicophilus palmarum
- Gray-crowned Palm-Tanager, Phaenicophilus poliocephalus
- Curson, Quinn and Beadle, 1994. New World Warblers. 252 p. ISBN 0-7136-3932-6
- Dunn, Jon. 1997. A field guide to warblers of North America. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co., x, 656 p. : ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 19 cm.
- Harrison, Hal H. 1984. Wood warblers’ world. New York : Simon and Schuster, 335 p., 24 p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
- Lovette, I. J. and E. Bermingham. 2002. What is a wood-warbler? Molecular characterization of a monophyletic Parulidae. The Auk. 119(3): 695-714. PDF fulltext
- Morse, Douglass H. 1989. American warblers : an ecological and behavioral perspective. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, xii, 406 p. : ill., maps.
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