The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Beccaloni G., Scoble M., Kitching I., Simonsen T., Robinson G., Pitkin B., Hine A. & Lyal C. (2015). LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (version 12.3, Jan 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Carter, D. 1992. Eyewitness Handbook of Butterflies and Moths. New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Klots, A. 1951. Field Guide to Butterflies of North America, East of the Great Plains. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co..
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Pyle, R. 1984. Audubon Society for Butterfly Watchers. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Schneck, M. 1990. Butterflies. Pennsylvania: Rodale Press.
  • Scott, J. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Standford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Taylor, J. 1994. Some Common Butterflies. Conservationist, March-June, 1994: 48, 5-6, 10-13.


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