The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2010. Bird bones may be hollow, but they are also heavy. Science Daily [Internet],
  • Ames, P. L. 1971. The morphology of the syrinx in passerine birds. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 37:1–194.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Barker, F. K., A. Cibois, P. Schikler, J. Feinstein, and J. Cracraft. 2004. Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:11040-11045.
  • Barker, F. K., G. F. Barrowclough, and J. G. Groth. 2002. A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds; Taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269:295-308.
  • Beresford, P., F. K. Barker, P. G. Ryan, and T. M. Crowe. 2005. African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): Molecular systematics of several evolutionary "enigmas". Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 272:849-858.
  • Chesser, R. T. and J. ten Have. 2007. On the phylogenetic position of the scrub-birds (Passeriformes : Menurae: Atrichornithidae) of Australia. Journal of Ornithology 148(4):471-476.
  • Cracraft, J., and J. Feinstein. 2000. What is not a bird of paradise? Molecular and morphological evidence places Macgregoria in the Meliphagidae and the Cnemophilinae near the base of the corvoid tree. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267:233-241.
  • Dumont ER. 2010. Bone density and the lightweight skeletons of birds. Proc. R. Soc. B.
  • Ericson PGP, Christidis L, Irestedt M, Norman JA. 2002. Systematic affinities of the lyrebirds (Passeriformes : Menura), with a novel classification of the major groups of passerine birds. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 25:53-62.
  • Ericson, P. G. P., L. Christidis, A. Cooper, M. Irestedt, J. Jackson, U. S. Johansson, and J. A. Norman. 2002b. A Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic New Zealand wrens. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269:235-241.
  • Ericson, P. G. P., L. Christidis, M. Irestedt, and J. A. Norman. 2002a. Systematic affinities of the lyrebirds (Passeriformes: Menura), with a novel classification of the major groups of passerine birds. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 25:53-62.
  • Ericson, P. G. P., U. S. Johansson, and T. J. Parsons. 2000. Major divisions in oscines revealed by insertions in the nuclear gene c-myc: a novel gene in avian phylogenetics. Auk 117:1069-1078.
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Harshman, J. 2007. Classification and phylogeny of birds. Pages 1-35 in Reproductive biology and phylogeny of birds (B. G. M. Jamieson, ed.). Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield, NH.
  • Irestedt, M. and J. I. Ohlson. 2008. The division of the major songbird radiation into Passerida and ‘core Corvoidea’ (Aves: Passeriformes) — the species tree vs. gene trees. Zoologica Scripta, doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00321.x
  • Jønsson, K.A. and J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zoologica Scripta 35:149-186.
  • Jønsson, K.A., J. Fjeldså, P.G.P. Ericson, and M. Irestedt. 2007. Systematic placement of an enigmatic Southeast Asian taxon Eupetes macrocerus and implications for the biogeography of a main songbird radiation, the Passerida. Biology Letters 3(3):323-326.
  • Sibley, C. G., and J. A. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds, Yale U. Press, New Haven.
  • WoRMS (2015). Passeriformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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